Could the Zika virus move Catholics to reconsider birth control? (COMMENTARY)

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Eritania Maria, who is six months pregnant, is seen in front of her house at a slum in Recife, Brazil, on February 2, 2016. The Zika outbreak has revived the debate about easing abortion laws but Maria's case highlights a gap between campaigners and U.N. officials calling for change and Brazil's poor, who are worst affected by the mosquito-borne virus yet tend to be anti-abortion. Photo courtesy of REUTERS/Ueslei Marcelino
*Editors: This photo may only be republished with RNS-KNOLL-COMMENTARY, originally transmitted on Feb. 11, 2016.

Eritania Maria, who is six months pregnant, is seen in front of her house at a slum in Recife, Brazil, on February 2, 2016. The Zika outbreak has revived the debate about easing abortion laws but Maria's case highlights a gap between campaigners and U.N. officials calling for change and Brazil's poor, who are worst affected by the mosquito-borne virus yet tend to be anti-abortion. Photo courtesy of REUTERS/Ueslei Marcelino *Editors: This photo may only be republished with RNS-KNOLL-COMMENTARY, originally transmitted on Feb. 11, 2016.

(RNS) The discovery of a sexually transmitted case of the Zika virus is already reverberating in Latin America. In Brazil, at ground zero of the Zika virus outbreak, the Health Ministry issued new guidelines for pregnant Brazilians, including cautions to use condoms and abstain from sex or even kissing.

Activists are also weighing in, calling for legalizing abortion of deformed fetuses. But an important voice with the potential to influence the debate has said relatively little on the topic thus far: the Catholic Church.

The Zika virus is particularly terrifying to pregnant women. Some women exposed to the virus during pregnancy have given birth to babies with abnormally small brains. As a result, some activists have called for expanding legal abortions in Brazil to include deformed fetuses. The Brazilian Catholic Church has roundly rejected that proposal.

Meanwhile, contraception has received far less attention thus far. Yet in this arena, there may be room for compromise.

Brazil’s population is 65 percent Catholic, and the church is still a culturally relevant force in Brazilian politics. Catholic teachings and the growing role of evangelicals may help explain Brazilians’ extremely strong views on abortion: 79 percent oppose it, according to a 2014 Ibope Institute poll.

The Brazilian Catholic Church opposed a 2012 Supreme Court decision to allow abortions of headless fetuses. In 2015, Brazil’s lower house judicial committee approved a law restricting abortions in cases of rape.

Abortion rights proponents hope the Zika crisis will highlight what they see as Brazil’s economically unjust reproductive regime. As Brazilian law professor Debora Diniz writes in The New York Times, “Low-paid women and domestic workers are the true face of the Zika virus.”

Diniz’s institute, ANIS, which is pushing the country’s Supreme Court to allow women infected with the Zika virus access to abortion, has a tough fight with religious authorities ahead.

While the Brazilian Catholic Church is known for strong support of health care initiatives and for helping Brazil’s poor, it sees no connection between poverty and abortion rights. Just last week, the National Conference of Brazilian Bishops released a statement condemning ANIS’ efforts as “an utter disrespect for the gift of life.”


RELATED STORY: Honduran cardinal warns against aborting Zika fetuses


But contraception is another matter, and on this count, the church might surprise its critics.

Cardinal Odilo Scherer of São Paulo last week called the use of condoms a “personal choice” and distinguished their use from abortion because it “does not involve a formed life.”

While Scherer’s comments may surprise some observers, other regional bishops have taken similar approaches.

The Mexican bishops in 1972 recognized that Catholics’ consciences might call for “responsible parenthood,” or sensitivity to the impact of having children on an existing family. The bishops also acknowledged “a very real and excruciating emergency for most Mexican families — the population explosion” that held back women from equal rights. In the context of the Mexican government’s population control measures, this letter amounted to a limited endorsement of contraception.

Remarkably, the Mexican bishops’ letter came just four years after “Humanae Vitae,” a letter from Pope Paul VI reaffirming the church’s traditional teaching on birth control.

“Humanae Vitae” sheds some light on the subtleties of the Vatican’s position on birth control. An ostensibly traditional document, it nevertheless recommends “responsible” birth regulation “for serious reasons (economic and personal, and medical reasons).”

A Catholic theologian respected by conservatives has also acknowledged the moral value of using condoms to prevent spread of disease. Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI said in a book-length interview that the use of condoms by prostitutes to prevent AIDS infection constitutes “a first step in a movement toward a different way, a more human way, of living sexuality.”

He warned, though, that condom use could not solve health problems without a deeper reckoning with a promiscuous culture.

Travis Knoll is a doctoral student in history at Duke University in Durham, N.C. Photo courtesy of Travis Knoll

Travis Knoll is a doctoral student in history at Duke University in Durham, N.C. Photo courtesy of Travis Knoll

Brazilian Catholics seem to understand this distinction. Despite their opposition to abortion, 71 percent of Catholics support contraception generally, according to a 2005 IBOPE study. Ninety-four percent support condoms as a way to prevent disease.

Reproductive rights advocates are unlikely to win fervent Protestants and Catholics over on the issue of abortion. But as history shows, local churches, and even thoughtful traditional theologians, can see areas of gray.

The church might be more flexible on the issue of contraception if it sees it less as a cultural poison pill leading down the slope to abortion and more as a viable public health alternative. Likewise, reproductive rights groups’ might focus on contraception, protection and possibly even abstinence — all of which might make abortion less necessary.

Scherer’s statements and the Brazilian consensus for contraception suggest there is room for dialogue and compromise. As the epidemic continues to spread, putting the health of future generations at risk, the stakes are high indeed.

Church leaders and public health advocates should use this crisis as an opportunity to move beyond polarization about reproductive rights and search for common ground on birth control.

(Travis Knoll is a doctoral student in history at Duke University in Durham, N.C.)

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  • Margaret Sjoholm-Franks

    At least officially, many Catholics have been using contraceptives for decades regardless of what the Pope and his court of bishops nd cardinals may say

  • Richard Rush

    “Could the Zika virus move Catholics to reconsider birth control?”

    If, by “Catholics,” you mean the Catholic Church, then I doubt it. That would be interfering with God’s perfect plan for human suffering.

  • Daniel Berry NYC

    silly question: “catholics” don’t need to “reconsider birth control.” They’ve been using birth control as much as the rest of the population for as long as it’s been available. And Pope Paul VI’s 1967 encyclical on the subject had no effect whatever in deterring them either.

    The only catholics who might think of “reconsidering” birth control would be their leaders–their bishops–who aren’t even in the game, so who cares? Besides, they have little need for birth control since their chosen sex objects cannot conceive.

  • Yoh

    But its also gullible developing nation governments who buy their garbage. Making laws which ban abortion and contraception in the name of the church. So it is kinda important.

  • Pingback: Brazil’s abortion rights debate fails to convince some mothers of microcephaly babies | Breaking World News()

  • Betty Clermont

    Pope Francis visited the Little Sisters of the Poor to support their case against contraception now before the Supreme Court. It will be interesting to see if any current Latin American prelates take a stand v. their pontiff.

  • George Nixon Shuler

    AS TO THE QUESTION IN THE TITLE, with regard to the hierarchy, that is doubtful because reducing suffering is a net negative when power and control over others is being sought. With regard to individuals, especially women, that certainly has already occurred. As to politicians in countries formerly considered “Catholic countries” because the vast majority is assumed to be Catholic and church and state are intertwined, as soon as they see the political clout of clerics collapsing they will not be rubberstamps for the hierarchy or will be replaced with other pols who aren’t. And thank God for that! The absolute greatest development of the 20th Century has been the clear separation of sex and procreation and those who seek to dominate others know it and it scares the bejesus out of them.

  • Melda Page

    As usual, the male leaders of the Catholic Church do not consider the emotional toll on women that they are requiring to give birth to severely deformed infants, much less the toll inflicted on any of these infants who survive in damaged conditions. Every woman who finds herself in this situation should leave the new born infant on the steps of the church for the priest to care for. When the numbers grow hugely, some of these inhumane ‘priests’ may change their minds.

  • Tony Pelletier

    Dear Travis Knoll, why do you make a selective reading of the previous Pope’s words? After the quoted part of his interview, Pope Benedict went on to say : “But it is not really the way to deal with the evil of HIV infection. That can really lie only in a humanization of sexuality.” Please don’t make him say something he did not say. An please learn from his talk : the humanization of sexuality, not the rubberization of sexuality. Peace.

  • Alex