Ellsworth Kelly may have been an atheist, but his chapel is undeniably spiritual

Patches of light flood the interior of Ellsworth Kelly's Austin at the Blanton Museum of Art in Austin, Texas. Photo by Kate Russell courtesy of Blanton Museum of Art, The University of Texas at Austin

AUSTIN, Texas (RNS) — The monumental new landmark “Austin,” may not be the kind of pilgrimage site Christians might think of visiting during Lent.

Designed by Ellsworth Kelly, the American abstract painter best known for his fascination with line, form and color, the free-standing structure is described as a strictly secular project, conceived by a nonbeliever “without a religious program.”

But then, how to explain the shape of the 2,715-square-foot building that forms a kind of vaulted cross, meant to resemble Romanesque and Cistercian cathedrals?

What of the circular stained-glass “tumbling squares” arranged in the formation of a traditional rose window, such as the one at Chartres Cathedral?

Or the wall of 12 colored glass rectangles that form a kind of monstrance used in Catholic services to display the Eucharistic host?

Or finally, the 14 black-and-white marble panels titled “Stations of the Cross”?

Ellsworth Kelly’s “Austin” at the Blanton Museum of Art in Austin, Texas, features an installation of colored glass windows. Photo by Kate Russell courtesy of Blanton Museum of Art, The University of Texas at Austin

Much as he remained an atheist, Kelly, who died in 2015 at the age of 92, could not escape the lure of religious iconography.

“By the time you’re working so hard to create this deeply contemplative rich space that references and draws together so many of the great moments of Christian religious art, you’re not doing something that can be completely categorized as secular anymore,” said Aaron Rosen, a professor of religious studies and author of “Art and Religion in the 21st Century.”

“Austin,” which opened to the public on Feb. 18, during the season of Lent, has so far drawn 12,000 visitors to the grounds of the Blanton Museum of Art at the University of Texas at Austin. Many of them are, no doubt, nonbelievers too. But even they have taken note of the work’s spiritual leanings.

Monstrance, 1949, oil on plywood.
 Photo by Ron Amstutz, courtesy of Ellsworth Kelly Studio

Kelly, who designed the minutest details of the building but died two months before construction began, is considered one of the most influential artists of the post-World War II era. After his discharge from the Army in 1945, he spent six years in Paris where he sketched 11th- and 12th-century cathedrals, abbeys and churches across France and Catalonia.

After returning to the U.S., he moved to New York and later decamped to a studio about 130 miles north of the city where he created abstract paintings, sculptures, collages, drawings and prints, paring shapes and colors down to their purest forms.

Museums and prestigious private collections snapped up his work, which has been displayed at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Art Institute of Chicago, the Centre Pompidou in Paris and the Tate in London. In 2007, his 13-part series “Spectrum VI” fetched a record $5.2 million.

“Austin,” which was completed after the Blanton launched a $23 million campaign, is Kelly’s most ambitious work, the capstone of a celebrated career.

Like the Rothko Chapel in Houston, which features 14 paintings by abstract expressionist Mark Rothko, corresponding to the Stations of the Cross, Kelly decided his chapel would also have 14 works.

In Kelly’s case, the 14 marble black-and-white panels may have been conceived with another American abstractionist in mind —Barnett Newman, who drew a black-and-white Stations of the Cross dominated by a vertical line or gash.

Like Newman’s series, Kelly’s does not represent the actual Stations of the Cross, which commemorates events from Jesus’ walk to Calvary, crucifixion, death and entombment.

But some might say God is in the details. The light streaming through the glass panes casts streaks of color on the marble panels consisting of geometric shapes, allowing the mind to imagine a moving tableau.

“It’s very different every time you come,” said Shripal Shah, a UT senior, who took time out to visit the monument recently. “It’s a different experience.”

The west facade of Ellsworth Kelly’s “Austin” at the Blanton Museum of Art in Austin, Texas. The artist-designed building has an installation of colored glass windows, black and white marble panels, and redwood totem. Photo by Kate Russell courtesy of Blanton Museum of Art, The University of Texas at Austin

In the apse, where a church might position the altar, Kelly chose to plant an 18-foot-long totem made of reclaimed redwood salvaged from the bottom of a riverbed.

Kelly reportedly turned down an offer to construct the monument at a Catholic university because it asked that the building be consecrated. In this, he was part of a wave of post-World War II artists who wanted no direct connection to religion, said Rosen.

“He grew up in a time when it was important for artists not to say they were doing something explicitly religious because that would constrain the meaning of their work and place them in a box they didn’t want to be in,” Rosen said.

But it is hard to deny its spirituality in the way it forces the viewer to pay attention to light, color, form, shape and beauty. Kelly acknowledged as much in a 2015 interview with The New York Times: “I think people need some kind of spiritual thing,” he said.

Journalist and writer Susan Faludi who toured “Austin” a few weeks ago, said she appreciated Kelly’s efforts to elevate those common elements of reality.

“I’m not religious,” said Faludi. “But this puts me in contact with bedrock spirituality I do have, even if I don’t belong to a church or a denomination.”

About the author

Yonat Shimron

Yonat Shimron is an RNS National Reporter and Senior Editor.


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  • FYI: Here’s Ellsworth Kelly’s atheism in his own words from when, in 2011, (the) Gwyneth Paltrow interviewed him in “Spencertown [New York], where he lives and works with his partner, photographer Jack Shear.”

    “Adults just don’t get it. … [As a kid] I had that feeling with my parents … especially about religion. … I’m not even a doubter [now]. I’m an atheist. … I feel this earth is enough. It’s so fantastic. Look up at the sun. It’s millions of years old and still to be millions more. And there are all the spaces we can never see. But my parents sent me to Sunday school. I didn’t like it. I didn’t like the whole ceremony of church. One night, I remember I had to sleep in my parents’ bedroom. I can’t remember why. They had three boys, and I was the middle one, so maybe there wasn’t room. Anyway, that night I wasn’t asleep yet and I heard my mother say to my dad, ‘Ellsworth asked me a question today that I couldn’t answer. He asked me, “If heaven is so great, why don’t we just kill ourselves?”‘ Of course, you’ve heard this kind of story. Kids think these things. She told him that she couldn’t answer my question. At that moment I thought, ‘They don’t know. They don’t know it all.’ I think that’s the moment that I became an atheist. Who wants heaven? I want another 10 or 15 years of being here. When you get to age 90, you have to accept it. This has been my life. It is what it was. I put everything into it that I could … I think America should get rid of this fundamentalism in order to think straight. … I think those six years in Paris I had of freedom is really what allowed me to keep my original ideas. But before Paris, I did meet a woman who was a faith healer. I had a stammer as a child and she sort of took it out of me. My time in the Army was difficult because of my stammer – I sometimes felt inadequate. So I’d come down from Boston to see her in New York. She stayed in that all women’s hotel, the Barbizon. She taught me to relax and self-hypnotize. I eventually had this catharsis, all this built-up emotion that I finally let out. But I continued to play with self-hypnosis after that. I could tune sounds in and out and control my blood flow. I probably entered some dangerous worlds. I tried to go back to this woman six months later for a ‘rejuvenation,’ but she had found religion. She was magic, though.”

    (Source: “Ellsworth Kelly” by Gwyneth Paltrow, Interview Magazine, September 24, 2011.)

  • A very tragic story of atheism, HpO. But it shines a necessary light on this RNS article, that’s for sure. Sincere thanks for sharing it.

  • Let’s see. He lost his stammer. He remained an atheist. She took her gift and turned to religion.

    Sounds like it is just the opposite of tragic.

  • Glad you’re now chiming in.

    It was the following, I thought, over-the-top article that got me insatiably curious. But it’s a bit too militant from the writer’s angle, and would be patronizing on my part, had I posted it here. But now that you’re here – and I did think of you because you’re very, very much like brother Ellsworth Kelly, in two ways:

    According to Trey Speegle, “#LGBTQ: Artist Ellsworth Kelly Last Work Was a Church –But Not (He was an Atheist)”, World of Wonder, February 25, 2018:

    “Ellsworth … Kelly was gay, which is not something any of the articles on this new work I read even discuss or really ever even mention unless, Jack Shear comes up. He is always referred to as his ‘longtime partner’ and he is now the head of his foundation. Kelly worked with colors of the prism. (Yes, the RAINBOW.) When he set out to create his own version of a chapel, he left out religious imagery and chose not to have it consecrated. It’s a chapel-like form stripped of any holy narrative. Even though Kelly’s work is about form and color, the rainbow, which is certainly not the sole ownership of LGBTQ people, still represents us. (Even though Kelly might not have subscribed to it.) You can’t help but see it here. Straight people sometimes complain that gay people layer ‘being gay’ onto everything but it’s not lost on me that this gay artist, an avowed atheist, created a church that features rainbow stained-glass. ‘Hand-blown’”, no less! (The colored glass was apparently created by Kelly layering 4 colors and having the colored panels created by blown glass.)”

    But no, “tragic” wouldn’t be my choice of words to sum up this artist’s aesthetics. I have my own aesthetics with which to appreciate his. Check out my comment to brother floydlee, if you want.


  • I do this all the time with artists whose works move me. I’ve gotta go to their heart of hearts. And I sense from sister Yonat Shimron’s article that brother Ellsworth Kelly’s oxymoronically “spiritual … atheism” (not sure that’s a quote, but hey) has got to be the starting point.

    Why do I do this? Well, look at the photos. See – feel, even – those “patches of light flood the interior of Ellsworth Kelly’s Austin at the Blanton Museum of Art in Austin”? Can you experience those “colored glass windows, black and white marble panels, and redwood totem”?

    Now I can, but only after reading his interview with Gwyneth Paltrow. Because only now with my fellow artist, “I feel this earth is enough. It’s so fantastic. Look up at the sun. It’s millions of years old and still to be millions more. And there are all the spaces we can never see.” But wait, there’s more. With brother Ellsworth Kelly, I can now – in the entire experiential world that is “‘Austin’ at the Blanton Museum of Art in Austin, Texas” – “relax and self-hypnotize … [toward] this catharsis, all this built-up emotion that I finally let out … [so as to] tune sounds in and out and control my blood flow … [thereby] enter[ing] some dangerous worlds.”


    The born-again Christian part in this experience comes later. It’s when I then cry. OMG forbid – why didn’t I ever meet my brother Ellsworth Kelly so he & I can talk our hearts of hearts to each other?

    Too late now. And I cry all the more, realizing this harsh reality in my life.

  • My original comment was changed. Disqus does that, for some reason,on occasion, for reasons I just don’t understand. I tried to change it back to as close as I could remember.

    “Straight people sometimes complain that gay people layer ‘being gay’ onto everything…” This I think is classic projection. We don’t do it, but when certain people think of the word gay, they think they are entitled to make us into some kind of monolith, like floydlee does on a regular basis. Of course, he would object mightily if the same thing were done by white racists towards black people.
    It reminds me of a story a lesbian friend of mine one told me. She had been talking to a rather iggerunt woman, and somehow let slip that not only was she gay, but she was from Philadelphia. The woman said…
    “I know a lesbian from Pittsburgh. Her name is Jane. Do you know her?”

  • You’re right Ben, “he lost his stammer” via the “faith healer” woman. But by Kelly’s own words, that was actually another part of this sad tragedy.

    This was not a Christian gig. This was not a “preacher pray for you Sunday, God heal you Monday” scene.

    This lady’s “gift” involved some kind of self-hypnosis. Which means that you think you’re driving your own car, but you’re not even in the front seat. **Something else** gets the steering wheel if they want it.

    That’s the meaning of Kelly’s cryptic sentence, “I probably entered some dangerous worlds” as he continued to experiment with self-hyp.
    That’s also why he mentions that the woman, having “turned to religion”, was no longer doing that stuff. Oh yeah.

    People often assume that just because a person is an atheist, that somehow they can’t get trapped in occult or supernatural stuff like everybody else. That’s a wrong assumption, folks.

    Atheist journalist Sally Quinn is one example (just ask the three corpses currently on her resume). Another example, tragically, is atheist artist Ellsworth Kelly.

  • Unfortunately “spirituality” is used by different people to mean different things.

    To the religious it often means the appreciation of matters ethereal and supernatural whilst to the non-religious it means the empathy we sometimes feel with things that seem to us beautiful and/or awesome.

    “But then, how to explain the shape of the 2,715-square-foot building that forms a kind of vaulted cross, meant to resemble Romanesque and Cistercian cathedrals?”
    Question and answer in the same sentence. The tribute by imitation of something that is often associated with beauty does not need further explanation. This smacks of post hoc does it not?

    Many buildings, amongst the older ones often religious buildings (expensive buildings require deep pockets and competing religious functionaries have always manged to garner the wealth of their constituency) are regarded by the non-religious as fascinating, beautiful and magnificent tributes to human design and endeavour – personally I’d include St Tryphon’s in Kotor and la Sagrada Família in Barcelona and several parish churches plus one Mandir with several non-religious ones ranging from our local Tudor Hall through Arts & Crafts buildings to some modern office blocks. One walks in and finds beauty, dedication, skill, art and sometimes a sense of other – of a respite from the hurly-burly of normal life.
    If you want to call this spiritual – then remember that the non-religious spirit is internal, a function of an immensely complex long-evolved brain and has nothing to do with the superstitious belief in soul or deity.

    Occasionally I wonder if some of those who claim religious belief try to confuse the issue by pretending that the spirituality of atheists is really just their spirituality with a refusal to acknowledge their irrational conviction. It isn’t – it’s a rather like but different use of the same word.

  • “Monolith”, Ben? I don’t think so.
    After all, there were gay people supporting Trump for Prez, even after the Pulse gay nightclub tragedy.

    “Never thought this would happen, but Trump is honestly the only candidate anymore speaking his mind and not pandering for a living. I guess I’m a gay centipede?” — quoted from “triplebro” in the Washington Examiner.

    So like I say 100 times, everybody’s different. Now there is an LGBT movement, a visibly grim, media-savvy, political Gay Goliath. No need for us Christians to pretend otherwise, ’cause we are Goliath’s main target.

    But we’re all unique & special individuals (including Ben), just like the Bible says. It’s like a kaleidoscope; it’s something to enjoy, not fear.

  • I’ve just been told that “iggerunt” is a wacronym, which, the latter, is “a lame, dumbass acronym found largely on the web and in electronic media blips … written by fools.”

    This is the part where you laugh with me.

    On a less serious note, though, just as I’ve been onto atheism and atheists’ self-critique of atheism, are there such “iggerunts” as LGTBQs’ self-critique of LGTBQism?

    That research officially launches … as of … just a sec before I press the “Post as HpO” button. There.


    You should’ve met my atheistic neo-Marxist & anarchist professors of fine arts. It’s their spiritual (your definition) aesthetics that sent me off pursuing my spiritual aesthetics.

    They introduced me to Phenomenology and all other good stuffs to appreciate what the senses are telling you in fine arts.

    Good comment, dude.

  • Thanks – though I had to look up Phenomenology!

    Now to ruin my image – I have to admit that my knowledge of the arts in general is very limited – I’m your basic ignoramus who sometimes sees something (or someone) and finds myself going “wow” – but I do like going “wow”.

  • Of course I’m laughing! But with you, as you say. :0)
    Iggerrunt is actually the word you use to describe someone who is too ignorant to know that the word is ignorant.
    there is no such thing as LGBTQism. There are just gay people, many of whom, like myself, want to see an end to legalized bigotry. I have no more patience for far left gay people than I do for far right gay people. But you can just drop the word gay from that. But people on the far right seem to see any positive statement about gay people and our place in society as “far left”. That’s just iggerunt.

  • “So like I say 100 times, everybody’s different. Now there is an LGBT movement, a visibly grim, media-savvy, political Gay Goliath. No need for us Christians to pretend otherwise, ’cause we are Goliath’s main target.”
    One more time. That’s just the story you tell yourself to justify your bad behavior, bad attitudes, your prejudices, your bigotry, and self-assigned persecution complex.

    Plenty of Christians, probably the majority of them in our country, disagree with you on just about every level. But were you to acknowledge that, you could no longer be special.

    And that is a pretty poor grade of “special”.

  • “Many buildings, amongst the older ones often religious buildings . . . . are regarded by the non-religious as fascinating, beautiful and magnificent tributes to human design and endeavour.”

    I’m one of those people. As I’ve often said about Christianity (and some other religions), “although the substance is appalling, the trappings are enthralling.”

  • Then you should like these two trivia, courtesy of Wikipedia.

    (1) According to their article with his name as its title, “Le Corbusier was an avowed atheist, but he also had a strong belief in the ability of architecture in to create a sacred and spiritual environment. … He was greatly aided in his religious architecture by a Dominican father, Père Couturier, who had founded a movement and review of modern religious art. … ‘In building [the Ronchamp] chapel, I wanted to create a place of silence, of peace, of prayer, of interior joy. The feeling of the sacred animated our effort. Some things are sacred, others aren’t, whether they’re religious or not. … [And for the Convent of Sainte Marie de La Tourette] I’m taken with the idea of a ‘box of miracles’ … As the name indicates, it is a rectangual box made of concrete. It doesn’t have any of the traditional theatrical tricks, but the possibility, as its name suggests, to make miracles.'”

    (2) And here’s an interesting footnote #221 to Wikipedia’s “List of atheists (miscellaneous)”:

    [221] “In Sunday Feature: Swimming Toward the Sun (Radio 3, 5.45pm), Jonathan Glancey asks why the great architect Le Corbusier, a modernist and atheist from a Protestant background, should choose to claim that his ancestry lay among the Cathars, a persecuted thirteenth-century sect of Catholic heretics.” Stephanie Billen, ‘OTV: Radio: Sunday September 29’, The Observer, September 29, 2002, Pg. 42.

  • What, then, can it be whose “trappings are appalling, although the substance is enthralling”? Would you go for that? Promise?

    OK, how about my life of faith? I’m poor yet rich that way, you see.

  • Hey hey thanks for letting me in on that very first “insider scoop”. Good for my working hypothesis.

    But LGTBQism for lack of a better term? No? What’s a good cover-all word for it, as good as a terminology as atheism?

  • It’s Ellsworth Kelly’s life you’re talking about here that got him way up there as a gay, atheist artist – but whose creative works you have yet to evaluate. I like them a lot; how about you, brother floydlee? I wonder how our brother in Christ Jesus, Francis Schaeffer, would’ve evaluated his works. Or would he find them tragic on account of the artist’s homosexuality & atheism?

    Well, then, what about all the famous atheists, “whose atheism is relevant to their notable activities or public life, and who have publicly identified themselves as atheists”, according to Wikipedia’s “List of atheists (miscellaneous)”? They’re or were accomplished business experts, comedians, explorers, historians, militarians, social scientists, and athletes. But what if their personal histories are as “tragic” as Ellsworth Kelly’s, yet are so influential as to make them all so accomplished?

  • Well, you remember what the Bible says. HpO. “God’s gifts and his call can never be withdrawn.” (Rom. 11:29).

    God does NOT say, “Hey, I gave you big artistic genius (or PhD business / science skills, or precision photographer moves) but you’re an atheist so I take it all back.”

    You, me, Ben, every poster in this forum has been given a SPECIAL SOMETHING by God, one or more gifts or talents that we can “Just Do.” He never revokes it.

    When I was 17, I saw a blind Baptist church deacon in Oklahoma, who was so mentally disabled he couldn’t speak ordinary words, and he had NO sense of clock time as we know it. But every time he prayed, God showed up in the church-house. Period. I saw and heard this Baptist deacon myself. We all got gifts from God.

    So that’s what I see with Kelly, HpO. A very God-gifted artist. Inspired, even. But he apparently rejected God — and now his artwork is like a beautiful but painful reminder of a person searching for Somebody they once knew, but never really finding Him again.

  • “Painful reminder” – that’s exactly I how feel, too, brother floydlee. Which means you really do have a great gospel heart for this homosexual, atheist artist after all. After all that has been said, I mean. To me. To brother Ben in Oakland.

    Once again you’ve ministered to me. Thank you. And for being patient with me as well.

  • There is a better term. “Gay rights supporters.…

    There is no “ism” attached to being gay. It is a state of humanity, a state of being, not an ideology.

  • I don’t know about that, so bear with me now. For there are Christians and their distinctive ideas & ways are called Christianity. And there are atheists and their distinctive ideas & ways are called atheism. But then there are lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgenders & queers and their distinctive ideas & ways are called – what? – “gay rights supporters”?

    No. How about homosexuality? Not that either. Non-traditional sexuality? Nope.

    LGTBQism is still a better term.

    Oh I know.


    There. Got it. Finally.

  • Another commentator mentioned phenomenology. To simplify it is a philosophical system that challenges the thinker to go back to and be grounded in experience, and to find/reveal the deep truth, the field of relationships/connections behind the aspect of experience that we are exploring. You could say that this structure is a meditation in the deep truth of color and enclosed space. This godless chapel reverberates with the deep truth of human perception, the system by which we experience the world. It brings us into the essence of color/light/energy and the interplay of energy and matter. Our body is an enclosed space made of heavy matter and the living light of our consciousness. As Jesus said, “The eye is the lamp of the soul. If you vision is clear your body will be full of light.” The phenomenology of this structure teaches our senses to be clear and full of light. IN phenomenology experience precedes essence. When we experience deeply we create essences. Essence does not come pre-made. We make it.

  • I can go with that, but it’s still not really accurate because the issue of civil rights and participation in society are quite separate in many ways from sexuality. But it certainly much better than LGBTQism.

    On the other hand, your first paragraph isn’t all that accurate either. Lots of Christians will tell you that other Christians aren’t really christian. Atheism isn’t a way of life, it is simply a lack of belief in god or gods.

  • I was going to settle for the naming, LGTBQ-activism, but the “ism” there conjures up “an ideology” for you, which it isn’t, you insist on stating. Like the original LGTBQism.

    Oh well.

  • Thanks for this – I suspect that his understanding of “sacred”, “spiritual” and “prayer” were not the same as many of those who might read his words.

    Some people seem to want to extend the use of religiously inclined words, and I think I understand why – but I try to avoid doing so. For example I can defend the concept of design and/or creation through evolution but, for me, it’s seems simpler to talk about evolution (random variation moderated by natural selection) without using either term.

  • “Our body is an enclosed space made of heavy matter and the living light of our consciousness.”

    Our body is physical. Our mind is the product of electrical effects generated within our brain – often stimulated by external matters. I’m not sure what you mean by “the living light of our consciousness”.

    Jesus was, yet again, wrong. Lamps emit light – the eye is a receptor.

    I really have no idea what you mean by “essence” or “essences”. Do you mean the shortcut memories that we use to recognise people, places, aromas etc. ?

  • Yours: “creation through evolution”.

    Mine: creation after evolution.

    Genesis 1:2 mentions, The earth was formless and void, and darkness was over the surface of the deep. Apparently, evolutionary scientists can still find evidences for that pre-creational evolution mentioned in Genesis 1:2. No wonder, for instance, they conclude from the evidences that the universe is billion years old. I can buy that.

    Pst … this is heretical thinking on my part. But I tell my people of faith, Hey, it’s right there in the Torah. What’re you gonna do – burn them books?

    Not exactly what you were talking about. But hey. Your two words there just kind of trigger a thought experiment.

    I’ll bet you, though. Our brother Ellsworth Kelly must’ve studied our brother Le Corbusier. Must have!

  • “Apparently, evolutionary scientists can still find evidences for that pre-creational evolution mentioned in Genesis 1:2. No wonder, for instance, they conclude from the evidences that the universe is billion years old. I can buy that.”

    Not sure what evolutionary scientists you refer to.

    The evidence is that the “big bang” happened approximately 13.8 billion years ago – that the earth was formed (albeit without oxygen etc.) around 4.5bn years ago, that single celled life appeared 500K years later with multicellular life coming in around 2bn years ago. The first “homo sapiens” fossils are some 350-400K years old.

    And the dust we are made of – none of your common garden muck – every atom in us (as in the rest of the universe) other than hydrogen and some helium is stardust – literally. Made in the violence of the death of a star and expelled into space.

    Now that’s “wow”.

  • Getting there. Bear (hug) with me, brother. Ha-ha. For see, activists are limited to the people, but I want an LGTBQ word that encompasses their theories & practices, their ideas & advocacies. So let’s agree to this phrasing, please:

    “The LGTBQ movement”!

    This offer expires in 48 hours. Sign here. And here. And here.

  • The “formless[ness] … void … darkness … [and] the deep” that were the eternal past earth, is “wow”, indeed, for me. Anymore “wow” and I’ll end up with an “ow”, if y’know what I mean. As in burning at the stake. (Pst … the H in HpO stands for – you guessed it – Heretic. One day I’ll tell you what the other 2 are for. All in good time, my friend.)

  • Hi, I’m the Elephant in the Room. Even after 5 days since your writing.

    So you must know Merleau-Ponty and his aesthetics, then. My uni profs taught him to me & my classmates. Can’t say I aced the test and projects on phenomenology. My just loving the sound of the word was good enough for them. They knew I just got born-again as a pre-Trumpian Evangelical Christian and appreciated that I still so looked up to them being pre-Antifa neo-Marxist & Anarchist and everything.

    I still thank God & Jesus for them, actually.

    Thanks for your heads-up there on phenomenology. I’m sure Ellsworth Kelly knowing that stuff appreciated your comment, too.

    Here’s to brother Ellsworth Kelly.

  • I’ll need a large amount of treasury notes upon signing. Just to demonstrate your sincerity, of course. Call it a “your money is your bond” sort of a thing. ???