Markus Söder, Bavaria’s premier, hangs up a cross at the entrance of the state chancellery in Munich on April 24, 2018. (Peter Kneffel/dpa via AP)

Bavarian leader puts crosses in state offices

(RNS) — Remember those controversies as some U.S. state officials installed Ten Commandments monuments in their courts and schools? Imagine the uproar if instead the government had ordered the Christian cross to be installed in all state buildings.

The conservative governor of Bavaria, in southern Germany, has done just that, ordering that crosses be displayed at the entrances to government buildings across his state.

The result, predictably, has been confusing and controversial.

Bavaria’s premier, Markus Söder, has presented the move not as a religious dictate, but merely a reflection of the values his fellow Bavarians share. The cross, he says, “has a defining effect on the identity of our society,” and hanging it in public offices shows “our Bavarian identity and way of life.”

[ad number=“1”]

Critics have denounced the order as a bald effort to woo Bavaria's traditionally pious and heavily Catholic conservative voters away from the far-right Alternative for Germany, or AfD, an anti-immigrant party that claimed 94 seats in the country's Parliament in federal elections last year. AfD's fortunes have risen on a backlash against the influx of over a million migrants since 2015, mostly Muslims fleeing the Middle East.

Unfortunately for Söder, even the national heads of Germany’s Roman Catholic and Protestant churches — who both live in the Bavarian capital, Munich, and have spoken out on immigrants' behalf  — have condemned his Kreuzerlass (“cross edict”).

“The cross can’t be ordered from above,” Cardinal Reinhard Marx, the Catholic archbishop of Munich and chairman of the German Bishops Conference, declared.

“If the cross is seen only as a cultural symbol, then it’s been misunderstood,” the cardinal added, noting that Söder’s decision had brought “division, agitation and confrontation.”

Catholic Cardinal Reinhard Marx, left, and Lutheran Bishop Heinrich Bedford-Strohm share a moment at Kirchentag 2017, the German Protestant church congress, in Berlin in May 2017. Photo by Maik Meid/Creative Commons

 This image is available for web publication. For questions, contact Sally Morrow.

Bishop Heinrich Bedford-Strohm, Munich’s Lutheran bishop and head of the Evangelical Church in Germany, or EKD, said ordering the cross to be displayed as a symbol of political identity degraded the meaning of the cross.

“That means loving your enemy, helping the weak, a commandment of love for all, instead of using the cross to ward off others,” he said in a veiled jab at politicians fanning the anti-immigrant mood in Bavaria.

Politicians in Söder’s Christian Social Union party jumped aboard his cross campaign, denying that it excluded anyone, including non-Christians.

While a national poll showed that two-thirds of Germans rejected Söder’s new rule, polls of Bavarian voters indicate that 53 percent support the cross mandate against 42 percent who oppose it.

[ad number=“2”]

Even some church figures echoed their support, despite their leaders’ criticism. Bamberg’s Catholic Archbishop Ludwig Schick tweeted his approval and called the cross “a sign of unity, reconciliation, peace, brotherhood and solidarity.”

Some 80 Catholic and Protestant theologians issued an ecumenical statement of support, saying: “The cross stands for human dignity founded in God.”

Bavaria already had many crosses on public squares, on mountaintops and in public offices, so extending this to all offices was a natural step, they said.

Markus Söder. Photo courtesy of Creative Commons

 This image is available for web publication. For questions, contact Sally Morrow.

Söder, 51, became premier of the majority Catholic state in March after a bruising internal power struggle within the archconservative CSU. He faces a strong challenge from the AfD at state elections due in October.

Opinion polls say the AfD, in its first try for the state legislature, looks set to win a hefty 13 percent of the vote — a greater percentage than it took in the national election in October. The once all-powerful CSU, the state’s largest party, could lose its absolute majority and end up with only 42 percent, forcing it into a coalition with another small party.

Many AfD supporters are former CSU voters looking for an even tougher line on migrants than Söder has been taking. So, his critics say, the governor is trying to woo them back with symbolic acts such as displaying crosses and tough measures including a broad expansion of police powers.

Last Friday, the day the cross edict went into effect, Söder doubled down on the symbolism by traveling to the Vatican for an audience with Pope Francis and meeting with Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI, a fellow Bavarian.

Söder, an active member of Bavaria’s minority Lutheran church, later told journalists he did not discuss his cross decision with Francis, but said that Benedict had expressed support for it. The Vatican gave no details of their talks.

The controversy has pointed up the unintended consequences of championing a religious identity. A judge in Miesbach, south of Munich, removed a large cross from his courtroom wall before the trial of a young Afghan Islamist accused of threatening to kill another refugee who converted to Christianity.

“How can I get him to stop thinking there is a jihad between Christians and Islamists?” Klaus-Jürgen Schmid asked. “I didn’t think it was right to sentence him while visibly sitting beneath a cross.”

[ad number=“3”]

Aiman Mazyek, chairman of a national Islamic association, said Muslims had no problems with displaying religious symbols in public, but he noted that minority faiths don't always feel they have the same right to do so as Christians.

“The double standard of accepting Christian symbols but barring Muslim, Jewish or other ones from the public sphere is unacceptable,” he said.

Jewish leader Josef Schuster also had no fundamental objection to crosses in public buildings but wondered why they should be displayed in offices also used by non-Christians. “What is this cross supposed to mean?” he asked.

Strong pushback from critics of the cross decision has prompted the Bavarian government to grant exemptions to three state-financed institutions most likely to defy the rule — universities, theaters and museums.

Bavaria’s police stations, tax offices, courts and other government offices are still supposed to display a cross near their entrance.

The state interior ministry, which is responsible for applying Söder’s order, has said it would not send agents around to check on compliance.

The Munich-based Süddeutsche Zeitung, one of Germany’s leading newspapers,wrote in an editorial that if the Bavarian government wanted to preach Christian values, it should follow Pope Francis’ practice of helping refugees, the homeless and the poor.

“Whoever puts a cross on the wall must expect to be nailed to it,” the paper said.

(Tom Heneghan reported from Paris.)


  1. Let’s make something perfectly clear here about the RCC in Germany, and specifically Marx and his acolytes, they have been walking the tightrope between Catholicism and heresy for some time. Their views are often not in line with traditional Catholic teachings, so their general views as far as I’m concerned (as a catholic) are highly suspect.

    So no one is going to address the fact that Christianity and specifically Catholicism is a valid part of their cultural identity? That installing the cross (not crucifix) is suddenly as meaningless or dare I say as sacrileges as Madonna and her (ab)use of the Christian symbol? So I guess it is just fine that Germany can mandate mandatory religious tithing and the German Catholic Church finds that just wonderful, but putting up a cross is not? Those who are complaining are the same ones who have bought into this nth degree of offensiveness and have interpreted this into some kind of cultural bullying? If a vowed member of a Christian faith, THE supposedly ONE TRUE faith finds offense in displaying the symbol of that faith they “vowed” themselves to then put another check mark in the suspect column under German Catholicism. A large portion of which has decided to go their own way with interpreting doctrine and dogma. If anything , this just goes to show that those “vowed” men are committing scandal (again) and need a righteous smack down.

  2. 1) A cross is marginally better than The Ten Commandments because the cross at least “might” imply kindness, where TTC do not.
    2) But, a country which allows a state or regional governor to make this sort of religious order is a poorly governed country.

  3. The cross, he says, “has a defining effect on the identity of our society,” and hanging it in public offices shows “our Bavarian identity and way of life.” No doubt a lot of Bavarians find this whole matter both obvious and offensive.

  4. FACT: Bavaria was the region that was notorious for being most enthusiastic in support of Hitler.

    How or even whether that relates to this news, I do not know. But I do think it is something to ponder.

  5. After all, what good is faith without the power of government to enforce it on the people? /sarc

  6. “Whoever puts a cross on the wall must expect to be nailed to it” the paper said, and this agrees with with the written Word. Better to be nailed to the Cross than to have the Cross fall upon you.

  7. Why would Bavarians find it offensive?

    It is and has been part of Bavarian law and culture since the formation of Germany.

  8. Well, obviously, a lot of Bavarians would like to move on to something better. If that were not the case then the matter would not cause so much tumult.

  9. It appears to be causing “tumult” outside Bavaria; inside Bavaria, not so much.

  10. “Unfortunately for Söder, even the national heads of Germany’s Roman Catholic and Protestant churches — who both live in the Bavarian capital, Munich.”

  11. The national head of Germany’s Roman Catholic bishops just got his wick trimmed by his boss and had half the other bishops go to the Holy Father to ask him to trim it.

    I am not sure who he speaks for, but it is not Catholics and it is not Bavarians.

  12. My relatives in Bavaria pretty much unanimously disagree with that.
    My relatives in Bavaria pretty much unanimously disagree with that.

  13. If memory serves, in the early ’30s a lot of German Christians voted for Hitler and anti-Semitism seemed to flourish. If Germans are free to belong to any church they like and the government pours several billion euros per year into churches and church-run schools, why it it OK for the Bavarian government to put crosses in state offices?

  14. That did not help much in the early ’30s, did it.

  15. Apparently your are nearly or completely unaware of Hitler’s war against the churches, including completely suppressing some, and imprisoning both the clergy and lay religious leaders who opposed him.

    Few people in the USA share your animosity towards religion.

  16. Hitler started cracking down only after he got his 1933 concordat with the Vatican. I have no animosity against religion, except when it oversteps proper bounds. I have been an active church and choir member all my life and have been the Sunday speaker in well over a hundred churches and synagogues in over 30 states.

  17. Your bounds involve exiting the synagogue, the temple, the meeting house, and the church.

    As a former Catholic with an axe to grind you certainly have your opinion, but that is all it is.

    The history of Hitler’s war with Christianity is well documented.

  18. Hitler’s crackdown on Christianity began after German Christians helped him to power. And your first sentence makes no sense at all. Further, I am pleased that my opinions are in line with most scholars in this area.

  19. Funny part of the story is the provincial government has stated that if people object to the crosses, they can hang them upside down.

  20. Yet here we are with people being pummeled by crosses.

  21. No, your opinions are “not in line with most scholars”.

  22. In the United States, it is called the strict separation of church and state. If such an ordinance was passed in the US, people would be clashing in the streets. There was a case a few years ago where there were near riots because a political leader wanted to put a stone sculpture of the 10 Commandments near a state capital. I forgot which state, it was somewhere in the south. I can’t wait until I see cases where Muslims, Jews, and eastern religions will want to have other symbols publicly displayed on public buildings, claiming it is “culture.” Brian Ghilliotti

Leave a Comment