Multiracial churches increase as blacks, whites learn to worship together

The Rev. Jessica Hayden, pastor of Old Otterbein United Methodist Church in Baltimore, walks down the aisle of her church after baptizing an infant on June 17, 2018. RNS photo by Adelle M. Banks

(RNS) — For two and a half years, Ja’mel Armstrong and Matt Ness have jointly led One Church, a congregation striving to be diverse in a neighborhood in Louisville, Ky., that is more interracial than most.

It’s a work in progress, they acknowledge, but the African-American and white co-pastors say they believe their congregation, which is close to 50 percent black and 50 percent white, is more fulfilling than the more racially segregated churches they used to lead.

“On our own, we just didn’t feel like that’s who we were meant to be,” said Ness, who formerly led a mostly white church. “The picture we believed in was much broader than the local church I was pastoring and the local church Ja’mel was pastoring.”

Matt Ness is a pastor at One Church, an interracial congregation of the Evangelical Covenant Church, in Louisville, Ky. Photo courtesy of One Church

The co-pastors’ congregation is part of the Evangelical Covenant Church — a small denomination that claims to be one of the most diverse in the country. One Church is part of a trend reported by scholars this month: Multiracial churches are on the rise and so is the percentage of U.S. congregants who attend them.

The percentage of U.S. multiracial congregations almost doubled between 1998 and 2012, from 6.4 percent to 12 percent, according to a study published in June in the Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. In the same period, the percentage of U.S. congregants attending an interracial church has reached almost one in five, advancing from 12.7 percent to 18.3 percent. The 2012 statistics are the latest available.

Co-authors Kevin Dougherty, a sociology professor at Baylor University, and Michael Emerson, provost at North Park University, defined multiracial congregations as ones in which no single racial or ethnic group constitutes more than 80 percent of the people in the pews.

But the co-authors point out that interracial congregations have long faced a number of challenges. And their recent findings show that while the average percentage of black congregants in multiracial congregations has increased, the percentage of Latinos in those kinds of churches has decreased in the same period.

“When you bring groups, different ethnic groups, together in a congregation, they come with different cultures, and those cultures include all types of expectations,” said Dougherty, citing music styles and food choices. “To help them develop a sense of shared identity above and beyond those cultural differences is a key part of the adaptability necessary for a multiracial congregation to succeed.”

Ness, co-pastor of the Louisville church, alternates preaching with Armstrong. He said before One Church opened its doors, they formulated a nontraditional approach to music. The worship team includes a gospel-style keyboardist, a blues, rock and country guitarist and a jazzy drummer and bassist. Singers represent a range of genres.

Ja’mel Armstrong is a pastor at One Church, an interracial congregation of the Evangelical Covenant Church, in Louisville, Ky. Photo courtesy of One Church

“We didn’t want to be defined by a particular style and so we didn’t tell you to stand up. We didn’t tell you to lift your hands. We didn’t tell you how to worship,” said Armstrong. “The goal was: If you are naturally contemplative in your worship style, then you be that. If you are naturally expressive, then you be that.”

It didn’t work for everyone. Armstrong said there was a gradual “mass exodus” from the 250-attendee first service in January 2016, with the congregation dropping to about 50. The congregation has since doubled to 100 after attracting new congregants.

The Rev. Michael Davis, the African-American teaching pastor at 10-year-old Downtown Church in Memphis, Tenn., said intentionality is key to multiracial churches. His congregation strives to have leaders of different races regularly preaching and making announcements. The church avoids identifying with political parties and instead seeks to foster an environment where various viewpoints can be aired.

“So nobody is trying to suffocate the identity of any of our minorities,” said Davis, who co-leads the fledging congregation with its white founder, Richard Rieves. “It’s intentionality, it’s empowerment and it’s sacrifice.”

The congregation, which Davis calls a “multiracial/class plant” or offshoot of the mostly white Second Presbyterian Church, meets in Clayborn Temple, a historic church that once housed a predominantly white congregation and later a mostly black one.

The Rev. Michael Davis is the teaching pastor at Downtown Church, a multiracial congregation of the Evangelical Presbyterian Church in Memphis, Tenn. Photo courtesy of Downtown Church

But Davis acknowledges that his Evangelical Presbyterian Church congregation that is 70 percent white and 30 percent minority (mostly blacks but including some Asians and Latinos) hasn’t achieved all its milestones toward integration, including among its smaller community groups attended by some of the 300 who worship together on Sunday.

“Are we doing it perfectly?” Davis said. “No. Because there are some times where I have to talk to some of my groups that are predominantly white and say, ‘How do we get more diversity?’”

As they strive for inclusiveness, leaders of multiracial churches say they sometimes feel like they are on their own without many role models.

Ness, 39, who has pastored for 16 years, said, “I feel like I’m brand new at my job when I started this.” Armstrong, 38, agreed that the nontraditional church stands out from others: “We almost feel a lot of times that we’re on an island.”

The Rev. Susan Brooks Thistlethwaite, a Chicago Theological Seminary professor, informally polled former students and found they have seen evidence of the new survey’s findings about the growth of interracial congregations.

“One woman graduate who identified as white indicated that she had ‘pastored a black church for seven years,’” said Thistlethwaite, whose seminary is affiliated with the United Church of Christ. “A number of graduates emphasized, however, that there have been congregations that have been racially diverse for many years, with racially diverse pastoral leadership.”

Worshippers gather at the Downtown Church, a multiracial congregation of the Evangelical Presbyterian Church in Memphis, Tenn. Photo courtesy of Downtown Church

The survey, based on data from the National Congregations Study, also found an increase in black clergy leading multiracial congregations, rising from less than 5 percent in both 1998 and 2006 to 17 percent in 2012.

The Rev. Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, professor of African-American studies and sociology at Colby College, said the willingness of white congregants to join churches with black pastors is a positive sign, given the long history of segregated Sunday morning services.

“Although white people have always been willing to appropriate style and music from black churches, they have resisted black leadership,” Gilkes said. “This new moment in American religious life could be quite helpful in countering many negative current events in the area of race relations.”

Despite the challenges of interracial cooperation, Davis said, he sees rewards as he helps lead his Memphis congregation.

“I experience the body of Christ more, the wider scope of it, and so it broadens my perspective of who the Lord is,” he said. “Being in a multiracial church, you see the beauty of different cultural backgrounds, different walks of life.”

About the author

Adelle M. Banks

Adelle M. Banks, production editor and a national reporter, joined RNS in 1995. An award-winning journalist, she previously was the religion reporter at the Orlando Sentinel and a reporter at The Providence Journal and newspapers in the upstate New York communities of Syracuse and Binghamton.

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  • What’s so hard about it? Jehovah’s Witnesses integrated as as soon as the law allowed it. It was 1972 here in Union, SC and the world didn’t come to an end. In fact JWs thrived and I made many new friends. If you won’t welcome integrated churches I would suggest reading the gospels again and praying a little harder.

  • I don’t think it has anything to do with whether or not the religion is progressive. I think it is more of a reflection of the demographics of the communities themselves. If you go back 100 or so years; cities such as New York Chicago and Philadelphia had numerous Catholic churches within blocks of one another that were separated by their native languages of Polish, Italian, Irish and German.

  • Jesus went primarily to the Jews first, then to the Gentiles, when the Jews mostly rejected his Messianic Mission. The apostles saw Jesus minister very differently to the Gentiles than he ministered to the Jews. Their ethnic and religious backgrounds were significantly different. The church in Corinth was a very diverse church of both Jew and Gentile. They did not get along very well. Apostle Paul wrote them two letters, trying to straighten out the numerous problems they had. Even Apostle Peter, and Apollos tried to help. Ultimately, the Corinth Church remained a troubled and difficult church to work with. Even warnings of unity in Christ and the priority of Love for each other didn’t help significantly. 1 & 2 Corinthians are lessons to be learned for multi-racial congregations. Jesus must be first priority for everyone. That is difficult to achieve.

  • “…..Blue birds fly with blue birds, red birds want to be with red birds — tell me when I’m wrong — pigeons want to be with pigeons…………… It ain’t sad because I want my child to look like me. Every intelligent person wants his child to look like him. I’m sad because I don’t want to blot out my race and lose my beautiful identity? Chinese love Chinese, they love the little slanted eyes brown-skinned babies. Pakistanis love their culture; Jewish people love their culture. Lot of Catholics want to marry a Catholic; they want the religion to be the same. Who wants to spot up yourself and kill your race? You are a hater of your people if you don’t want to say who you are. You shame what God made you. God didn’t make no mistake; he made us all like we are……..” Muhammad Ali

  • And, then, of course, there’s the voluminous (and growing) body of literature testifying to an exodus of people of color from white evangelical congregations after the members of those congregations voted en masse for the current occupant of the White House, and as they continue to support him at numbers far higher than the support offered to him by the rest of the U.S. public. Here’s only a sampling of that growing body of testimony:

    Ray Chang, “Open Letter to John Piper on White Evangelicalism and Multiethnic Relations”

    John Chilton, “Reversing course, blacks are leaving white evangelical churches”

    Detroit Today, “Why Are People of Color Leaving White Evangelical Churches?”

    Elizabeth Eisenstadt Evans, “You Fix This Mess: Post-Election, Evangelicals of Color Disappointed in White Evangelicals”

    Summer Evans and Adam Ragusea, “Why African-Americans Are Leaving White Evangelical Churches”

    Deborah Jian Lee, “Betrayed at the Polls, Evangelicals of Color at a Crossroads”

    Bryan Loritts, “More on Leaving White Evangelicalism: A Response from Bryan Loritts”

    Van Moody, “Why Blacks Are Really Leaving White Evangelical Churches”

    Barrett Holmes Pitner, “Megachurches Are Turning Into MAGA-Churches”

    Campbell Robertson, “A Quiet Exodus: Why Black Worshipers Are Leaving White Evangelical Churches”

    Chad Seales, “That Blacks Are Leaving White Churches Should Surprise Nobody. Here is What to do About It”

    For that matter, there was the report immediately following the election of the man now sitting in the White House that a whopping 14% of evangelicals had left their churches after that election, a report based on empirical evidence that, as far as I know, the media have never tried to follow up on — to ask who is leaving churches due to that election, why they are leavring, how big the much-discussed exodus of black evangelicals from white evangelical churches has been. See: Paul A. Djupe, Jacob R. Neiheisel and Anand Edward Sokhey, “How fights over Trump have led evangelicals to leave their churches”

    It’s interesting, isn’t it, that this story seems to have been entirely dropped by religion reporters after it appeared in multiple outlets in the first part of 2017?

  • Real interesting comment…. that “people of color” left because their “white” pewmates voted for trump. Now we could say that the POC are much more righteous (along with their socialist brethren in the democrat party) and that they did not vote for trump because trump is a bad man. Not sure how the POC knew that their white friends voted for trump unless they were told. If they just assumed that all whites voted trump then I think the racism alarm is going off.
    But this article implies race so I will assume that that is the defining factor of the discussion.
    If POC left their white brethren behind because (they assumed) the whites voted for trump; then it’s interesting to note that the white people did not leave their POC churchmates behind when Obama was elected. That would imply that the POC are the bigots and racists here. And don’t even try to tell us that the white members loved Obama so they had no reason to leave.

  • I took the time to read each and every url you posted to gain some sense of the “the voluminous (and growing) body of literature testifying to an exodus of people of color from white evangelical congregations after the members of those congregations voted en masse for the current occupant of the White House”.

    With one exception what I found were talking head, sans data, sans evidence, repeating the same message, and in some cases quoting each other.

    The sole exception was

    “In 2014, the Pew Research Center found only 14 percent of African Americans in Georgia identified as an Evangelical Protestant. “

    And that’s it, that’s the ONLY data.

    Does “testifying” mean “projecting”, “kvetching”, “imagining”, or “wishing for”, because within the context of the material your referenced it certainly does not mean “supporting”, “demonstrating”, or “proving”.

    In fact, actual data along these lines seems to scarce to none on a quick look around.

    Now, there does appear to be substantial that “progressive” churches like the Episcopal Church, which almost certainly did not turn out for Trump, continue to lose membership as they have for ever four decades.

  • Robert P. Jones’ The End of White Christian America (NY: Simon & Schuster, 2016) is absolutely essential background reading to understand why so many non-white U.S. Christians — very rightly — express strong reservations about many white Christians’ iteration of Christianity at this tragic moment in American history:

    The racial perception gap between white evangelical Protestants and African Americans is a yawning 45 percentage points. Fewer than three in ten (29 percent) white evangelical Protestants see the recent killings of black men by police as part of a broader pattern, while 57 percent see them as isolated incidents. Among whites, religiously unaffiliated Americans hold the closest views to African Americans: about two thirds (66 percent) of the religiously unaffiliated see these events as signs of a broader problem, compared to 23 percent who see them as isolated incidents.

    If there were any lingering hopes that the election of the nation’s first black president could move America past its racially fraught history, they died along with Brown, Garner, and Gray. The racial perception gap highlights one of the most powerful – but also least discussed – divisions between Americans on the topic of race: the rift between the descendants of White Christian America and the rest of the country. These stark divides prompt a simple but fundamental question: why can’t white Christian America understand how African Americans feel about the black men who have died at the hands of white police officers? (pp. 154-5).

    No segment of White Christian America has been more complicit in the nation’s fraught racial history than white evangelical Protestants. And no group of white evangelical Protestants bears more responsibility than Southern Baptists, who comprise the overwhelming majority of white evangelicals, particularly in the states of the former Confederacy (p. 167).

  • Robert P. Jones is something of one-hit – the supposed “Decline of White Christian America” – pundit.

    He has rather cleverly inserted himself at PRRI where he can crank out the “research” which supports the conclusions he had already reached.

    A dedicated “progressive” and opponent of both the President and traditional American values in general, he projects that “a growing number of non-white and non-Christian Americans are repulsed by the increasingly nativist, tribal tenor of both conservative white Christianity and conservative white politics. At the end of the day, white evangelicals’ grand bargain with Trump will be unable to hold back the sheer weight of cultural change, and their descendants will be left with the only real move possible: acceptance.”

    This “historical inevitably” mantra is a common one on the Left, but the track record to date has been the future never looks like the predictions.

    Dr. Jones’ predictions have the ring of the kind of pronouncement that led Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain) to remark that “The reports of my death are greatly exaggerated.”

  • If one believes in heaven, if one thinks about who Jesus is saving right now, this instant——these things are multiracial or they are mere figments of our imagination. Seriously, what works “at church” is not the issue. What matters is when white, black or brown people can positively recognize the Holy Spirit in other individuals of any or all colors in real life on the street, at work, at the stores, at the car repair shop—–anywhere BUT church.

    All that said, my favorite sacred music group for years running is the Brooklyn Tabernacle Choir. It’s big, it’s multi-racial and it will light your fire.
    Watch them on YouTube and get blessed right on your computer.

  • What a bunch of drivel. Wake me up when the black community and socialists that run every major city in the US start to care about the black on black murder rate.

  • You’ve missed the point.
    People aren’t leaving because of Trump’s color (let’s call it white, for the sake of your argument), but because they can see that much of what Trump (and his administration) are saying and doing is unChristian.

  • So because of that (trumps policies are unchristian), they are leaving behind their church mates? I just don’t understand that. I think it says more about the people leaving than it does trump.
    As Americans, we get either a R or D every four years. Sometimes you “win”; sometimes you “lose”. That being said, you go to church to worship what is above this world.
    I happen to live in a blue state; blue city; and a blue church. I did not care for Obama and his policies. That being said, I did not leave my church or church mates behind because of that.
    If this is really true-that blacks leave their white church mates behind because they assume they voted for trump, they are just as unchristian because they place trumps “sins” on their church mates shoulders.
    I have not missed the point at all.
    Those leaving are unchristian, racist, or both.

  • No, you’ve still missed the point, even though it’s a very simple one:- People are leaving Evangelical congregations when they see that the remaining members have enabled, and are continuing to support, an unChristian President and an unChristian administration.

  • In the case of JWs and the Church of Christ in SC it was a conscious decision to integrate. Other than that each congregation reflects the demographics of the community. Since Kingdom Halls are few and far between the congregations are racially and culturally diverse but united by the Gospel. Yes, I’m still an atheist but that is one of the few aspects of JWs I admire.

  • The white on white murder rate is just as troubling as the black on black murder rate but is a red flag bigots fly as though it has any meaning.

  • Progressive??? Ha! They are far from it. They were merely following Jesus’ commands as closely as possible and segregation is wholly unchristian so they integrated as soon as society would allow (I.e. no one would burn them down). In my case the congregation was 85% black and 25% white – a culture shock for us. Prejudice is learned and can be unlearned if you follow Jesus. The congregations reflect the local demographics.

  • The evidence that “People are leaving Evangelical congregations when they see that the remaining membrers have enabled, and are continuing to support, and unChristian President and an unChristian administration” appears to be slim to none.


    There is underculture of violence in the black community that is so easily documented and observed that I have read about it in a publication edited by William Edward Burghardt “W. E. B.” Du Bois circa 1908.

    When it is tolerated, as has happened in Baltimore, Chicago, and Memphis, by politicians who play the race card for votes, it becomes endemic.

  • I know about the white on white statistic too.
    My point is that if a cop shoots a young man that was “turning his life around” the BLM crowd is out in force. However, the previous night there were probably 5 separate black on black shootings and potentially a death. YET, all you ever see is the mother crying and another candlelight ceremony at the scene.

  • No. You’re supportive of the bigots who left.
    Short of saying “every white evangelical loved Obama”; please explain why the opposite didn’t happen when Obama was president.
    Please explain.
    By the way, Obama had his share of unchristian events as well…..

  • Your fellow traveller thinks that no-one has left the Evangelical congregations. Please make your minds up.
    As for remainder of your reply: I don’t intend to try to unravel the logical knots in which you are enmeshed.

  • Because your knots stop where you want them to.
    You have trump derangement syndrome.
    You make a statement, and then when the same statement is flipped to scrutinize you; it no longer makes sense.

  • Ok. Thanks for the response. Maybe the rest of us will figure it out some day to where we can worship together.

  • The press focuses on cop wrongdoing and many in the community jump to a conclusion before the facts. If a cop kills an unarmed white boy, white people are also upset even though white on white killings are occurring and no one points it out. The only difference is that unarmec blacks are 3x as likely to be victims compared to whites and other ethnic groups.

  • They are also 3x more likely not to comply with the instructions given at the time of arrest.

  • There is a strong correlation between poverty and crime. Minorities have higher rates of poverty.

  • Yes, but there is zero evidence that poverty causes crime, which is why 60 years of anti-poverty have had no discernible effect on crime in the target groups.

    It appears, although it is not being researched a lot for obvious reasons, that whatever is the root cause of high crime is the root cause of high poverty. That is, something is wrong in certain populations – morality, lack of two parents, who knows – that exhibits two ways: crime and poverty.

    Needless to say the Federal Government and the various anti-poverty groups, Bill Gates, and so on aren’t handing out money to figure it out.

  • I think you might consider how white collar crime falls within that little scenario correlating crime and poverty to an underlying root cause.

  • I would say that poverty erodes hope as well. Especially generational poverty or living in an impoverished community.I believe it was Mother Teresa who commented that poverty in the US was harder to bear/live with when affluence was so present.

  • 3x as likely to die from other blacks’ guns.

    Die from the police? Nope. Die from the KKK? Nope. Die from our own race? Yep.

    But it’s a lot easier to run to the media and rag on the police, than to take self-responsibility, look in the mirror and say this is OUR problem.

  • Nice article Adelle but whites and blacks “learning” to worship together misses the point of worship/community/ethnicity in the first place.

    As long as what color goes to which building and mingles with who’s who is a “thing”, (and it still is) the church/family of God will move further down the road of pretension, salesmanship and the phony taste that the world senses much better than the church herself.

    Worship and community are no different than social and community. Engaging forced quotas, loopy ambitions of percentage points is how we see the church of all colors still in decline.

    From Christian-Church-day-one, conflicts with Jews, Greeks, Hellenistic, Samaritans, and Gentiles have been more about Christian unity in doctrine and purpose than contrived assimilation and “let’s show the world how politically correct we can be”.

    We are fast moving to where we have a church for every preference, victim, march, and # movement.

    Multiracial is included in our Great Commission–but not that they must all clump/worship together and lose their cultural identity.

    We have but one equal race before God–HUMAN–

    Please let each ethnicity be free in Christ and free to worship where they please without being guilted if their percentages do not meet the approval of CNN, IBM and USA.

  • Probably goes back to that time when people of one skin color decided people of another skin color across the ocean were not human and could thus be packed into inhumane ships, made slaves and worked until they died.

    Just as one possible guess.

  • I don’t believe it was only the US involved in those horrors and I do understand that, but, if, like everyone over there preaches, they want to rectify the racial problems, then why is your media focusing on colour, rather than just people? Why are you allowing your media, etc to continue to do so?

  • Never said it was only the US..but your comment was exclusive to the US.

    “why is your media focusing on colour, rather than just people?”

    Because there is a huge problem still with many white people wanting to deprive people of color of life, liberty and happiness based on their race. It’s a huge issue and deserves media coverage.

  • And rather than a solution being handed out by the media, etc, they focus more on the problem and create a worse one. I’m sorry.
    If one listens to even election coverage, it is broken down into race. That’s very sad. Blessings

  • Should the Chinese just simply accept Caucasian people as citizens???
    How about the Japanese. Should they be forced to assimilate non-Japanese? Should they pay for the housing, food and welfare of non-Japanese?
    Why are only White nations being “diversified”? Rhetorical. WHITE GENOCIDE.

  • I think Agni was being sarcastic. But your experience is borne out by the statistics: Of all major US religious groups outside historically black churches, the percentage of the membership that identifies as African American is highest in Jehovah’s Witnesses.

  • This is a great trend. There are others who are crossing the religious devide and enjoy worship with Jews, Christians and Muslims plus other religious group coming together to worship the Creator. Check out SUBUD.

  • Absolutely not. But you singled out the white race.
    Whites who owned slaves were such small percentage. But yet the entire White race gets the condemnation. And it was the White race who ended slavery to the North American continent. Hell……………..millions of Whites had to die as a result.

  • In other words, making crap up. If you can’t cough up a supportable argument against someone just call them a “socialist” and just engage in strawman burning.

    Of course on the flip side “fascist” happens to be a very apt description of conservatives these days. They even support goon squads and concentration camp!

  • That’s circular. What do you mean when you say socialism? Define it without circularity.

    What you have now said is Democrats are socialist because socialists are democrats.

  • First of speak of the black or white “race” is really meaningless with what we know of DNA now.

    I am a child of the South….the odds of me being part African are probably good….slaveowners tended to rape the help.

    “it was the White race who ended slavery to the North American continent. ”

    And good old white Christians who caused it in the first place…

    Let’s agree it was a sh*tty thing to do…no matter what the “race.”

  • Tara Isabella Burton writing today at Vox in an article entitled, “Before Trump, churches were increasingly multiracial. What next?”:

    “The attempts at resolution, though, may be reversing thanks to the contentious 2016 presidential election. We don’t yet have the data to ascertain exactly what the effect of the 2016 election will be on these numbers. However, anecdotal [evidence] suggests that, for many Christians of color, Donald Trump’s election may have been a step back prompting some non-white evangelicals to leave multiracial or predominately-white congregations. A New York Times article from March suggests that evangelicals of color — discouraged by the 81 percent of white evangelicals who voted for Trump and the 75 percent who continue to support him as of April — are leaving their congregations.

    White evangelicals frequently diverge drastically from their counterparts of color on political issues, including foreign policy and immigration. For instance, on issues like family separation, white evangelicals are markedly more supportive of Trump than any other voting bloc. Thirty-six percent of white evangelicals support family separation, compared to less than 13 percent of nonwhite Protestants.

    Trump has made the conflation between evangelicalism and nationalism increasingly explicit: His top evangelical allies, like Pastor Robert Jeffress, frequently lead services that link American patriotism, support of Trump, and Christian worship. White House officials quote Bible verses to legitimize the administration’s family separation policy.

    If Trump’s presidency fragments multiracial congregations or denominations, he will be actively undoing a decade and a half’s worth of effort, and turning back the tide on racial reconciliation within Christian communities. Eleven o’clock on a Sunday morning may end up more segregated than ever.”

    Good journalism, if perhaps overly cautious about the “anecdotal evidence” supporting the conclusion that a lot of evangelicals of color are leaving previously racially mixed or predominantly white congregations now that they recognize that the underlying theology of a church they thought was gospel-oriented and welcoming to them is actually white nationalism.

  • in what sense? You still refuse to define what you mean by socialism.

    Do you mean the classicial dictionary definition? If so..then FINE..we then have a basis to discuss that. Just tell me for Pete’s Sake lol

  • I’ll let Tom Perez speak for me. He’s one half of the dynamic duo running the DNC.
    Perez told bill press on his radio show that Alexandra ocasio Cortez (actually more 1% than she portrays) represents the future of the democrat party -socialist.
    At least they finally admitted who they actually are….


  • Perhaps you address poverty because it is the right thing to do – a moral choice. Crime exists in all strata of society.

  • Perhaps you act to alleviate poverty because it is the right thing to do – a moral choice. Crime exists in all strata of society.

  • Money laundering is a criminal enterprise activity. White collar crime is a different kettle of fish – Ponzi schemes, mortgage fraud or Trump University. Quite often not criminally prosecuted but sometimes.

  • Well, we’ve had a nearly sixty year run of the War on Poverty.

    How do you think it’s going?

  • Tara Isabella Burton writing at Vox in”Before Trump, churches were increasingly multiracial. What next?” makes it clear that for some folks saying something is almost like it is actually true.

    Yes, a New York Times article in March “suggests”.

    Yes, some people believe aliens from other star systems live among us.

    Saying it, thinking it, and proving it are three separate things.

  • Ignorance is bliss; until it’s not. Gladiator famously said — “What we do on earth; echoes in Eternity.”
    Whether you believe in an afterlife it does not matter. Your ‘heritage’ mourns.

  • There was never an allegation of criminal enterprise involving Trump University.

    Each and every allegation involved potential civil damages, and all were settled.