David Gushee: Christians, Conflict and Change Ethics Faith Opinion Politics

Post-election whiplash: 10 observations

President-elect Donald Trump, right, and Vice President-elect Mike Pence embrace at their election-night rally in New York City. Photo courtesy of Reuters/Mike Segar

(RNS) Here are 10 things I know or think I know, see or think I see, in the post-election whiplash. I am mainly trying to stay in the analytical mode in this piece as I try to make sense of what is going on around me.

  1. There is a certain kind of anti-Trump person who continues to be convinced that to have voted for Donald Trump, after everything he said and did in the campaign, was itself an incomprehensible act of moral evil that more or less places the voter beyond the pale of human decency. Many relationships have been strained or broken because of the implacability of this conviction or resistance to it. Thus we again see the extent of the political division in our country. It is acutely painful.
  2. Academics, especially in the humanities, tend to be liberal in their politics. They also tend to take words very seriously, to be especially committed to diversity and inclusion, and to center their politics on defending marginalized groups. Thus it is no surprise many academics have been especially appalled by the vote — because they found Trump’s words and policies repeatedly offensive and assumed most others would be similarly offended. The gap between their values and the apparent values of 60 million Americans leaves them deeply frustrated and dispirited, and is already leading to considerable anguished conversation at our academic professional meetings.
  3. Some anti-Trump people have about them a mood of teachability, while others are having difficulty getting past pure outrage and incomprehension. The former want to know what they didn’t understand, what they missed, about the American electorate. They may still be very deeply upset over the election results, but they are trying to listen, to break out of their echo chambers, to seek greater clarity. I noticed in the New York Times’ opinion section a considerable amount of this kind of reflection, which I appreciated, and am hearing it some from Democratic politicians and activists.
  4. The most poignant and compelling fear, grief and worry that I am hearing is from people who come from groups at least periodically targeted by Trump’s campaign rhetoric. This includes Latino (especially Mexican) immigrants, Muslims, those of Arab background and refugees from the Middle East, notably Syria. It also includes some (not all) women, but perhaps especially those who have experienced sexual assault; African-Americans deeply offended especially by Trump’s leadership role in the anti-Obama birther cause; some disabled people offended by Trump’s mockery of a disabled reporter; and some LGBT people, mainly because of the GOP platform. Members of these groups have special reason to feel abandoned by their fellow citizens, in some cases their fellow Christians who, even if they voted for Trump for other reasons, were, by definition, willing to overlook language, and sometimes policy proposals, that threatened or diminished them, and can thus be viewed as complicit in their harm.
  5. A certain percentage of Americans will remain defiantly unreconciled to a President Trump until, or unless, he apologizes for harms done during the campaign, as just described; definitively demands that attacks on racial, ethnic and other minorities on the part of any American cease; promises the resources of the federal government to protect all citizens; and backs away from policy proposals that would directly threaten vulnerable groups.
  6. Anti-Trump people of my acquaintance struggle to understand that anyone could have had anything approaching a serious moral or policy objection to Hillary Clinton. But this is to underestimate concerns held by many millions of Americans, especially Catholics and evangelicals, about the unresolved moral issue of abortion. And worries over the ethical baggage that over four decades has accrued to the Clinton account mattered to many. What people count as morally important varies. And morally important issues are not the only issues people vote on.
  7. Divisions in economic circumstances are very often invisible to those who are privileged. Most of us now live and move in economically homogeneous circumstances. For example, I am a knowledge worker who has done well economically, especially in the last decade when many other Americans have struggled desperately. It is hard for me, and those like me, to properly weigh the economic concerns of people whose jobs are disappearing and communities decaying. If desperate people found hope in one candidate and no hope in another, but I am not in the social class of those who chose the other candidate, perhaps I have some things to learn about the rest of America, rather than dismissing them as dupes and rubes.
  8. Anti-Trump evangelicals are absolutely pounding the 81 percent of white evangelicals who voted for Trump. The breach between the majority of politically conservative, loyally Republican evangelicals, and the minority of politically progressive, independent or Democratic evangelicals is beyond repair. I do wish the anti-Trump evangelicals would consider some of the complexity I have been outlining in the previous points. But I say this as one who generally shares their objections and their politics. It is not the first time I have been disappointed by the voting patterns and policy preferences of white American evangelicals.
  9. Christians remain endangered by the collapse of their identity into either a “red” or “blue” political identity. I call instead for resolutely independent moral witness and faithful practice, in personal life, in the local church and, when necessary, in the public square.
  10. The nature of the public moral witness required over the next season of our nation’s life will depend on Trump. Perhaps he will look with compassion upon the country that he fought so hard to win; perhaps he will broaden his gaze to encompass the whole of it; perhaps he will soften his heart as he hears the cries of those who fear him; perhaps a Republican Congress will set some boundaries. “Give the king your justice, O God.” Psalm 72.

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David Gushee

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  • I’m happy to see that Dr. Gushee has time on his hands, after undertaking the big job of being a pastor to an average-sized parish. One would be exhausted from that charge. but perhaps he has sources of strength we know not of!

    I disagree with almost everything he has to say here. So liberal arts faculties are known to be liberals! Well, what else is new?

    Gushee’s white success guilt-trip is meanngless. He himself had the good sense to get a good education in a field that payed fairly well, then go where the jobs are. No one can be faulted for that. In some quarters it’s still called “taking responsibility for one’s self.” Those losers I used to teach in high school never quite “got it” so you’ll find them working at WalMart and crusading for a raise in the minimum wage. It never occurred to them that they could add value to themselves by taking the initiative to become better trained and promoted from their minimum-wage job. I don’t feel guilty or responsible for these folks. I gave them my best as a caring teacher.

    Gushee’s last statement is the most agridous. The nature of the public moral witness does not depend on Trump. It depends on us Christians to pray without ceasing, and to go about being peacemakers like we’re called to do. Remember, “Blessed are the peacemakers,” from the sermon on the mount? We are the people called to make a difference in the world’s trying circumstances through our prayers and example to others. I’m a mere layperson and it didn’t take a doctorate from some seminary for me to learn that!

  • The one thing we know for sure is there is more chance of a dog having three heads than there is of someone with the personality disorders Trump has exhibited turning around and doing good. Hope may spring eternal, but in this instance Hope must admit there ain’t a lot to work with here.

  • My husband taught for 13 years in one of the worst high schools in the nation. His kids were not “losers”. They had got the short end of the stick, but if a teacher was willing to inspire them they could learn to believe in themselves. He was able to take his students from being below grade reading level to the point where they either passed the first semester of Freshman Chemistry at college or got accepted into the army. The fact that some of them went onto get Master’s degrees in Chemistry and are still bagging groceries for minimum wage is a sign of how badly our economy is out of whack, not a sign that they are “losers”.

  • Bravo for your husband’s better students. My better students went on to succeed as well. I’m betting he still had at least a small group of losers of which I speak. They were too cool for school, and only came because it was a boon to their social life. They’re in their 20’s and 30’s now, and are just coming to figure out what those early years of neglecting their studies has cost them, in terms of earnings and promote-ability. As I’ve said, I gave these kids my best, and don’t need to feel guilty or responsible for them any longer.

  • There is an unreal (perhaps surreal is a better adjective) aura that surrounds this article. While the author claims to be in “analytic” mode, he seems to have totally lost touched with the fact that Trump’s inflammatory rhetoric is the primary source and cause of the discord that has surfaced — and in all likelihood will get a lost worse before improving. I expect the anti-Vietnam/Civil Rights protest movements of the ’60s will look like child’s play before all is said and done. And, I expect many religious groups to be front and center in the impending civil unrest.

  • Speaking of hope, I hope you meant “…there is _more_ chance of a dog having three heads…”, otherwise, the odds would be quite good that Trump will “do good” (and we know that’s not true)!

  • Not quite. Trump’s been saying the same thing for 50 years, but this time a lot of people agreed with him and acted on it. The fact that all those people would still believe that inflammatory rhetoric without Trump is the bigger problem. Not that Trump won’t try to make himself as big a problem as possible just to get attention; that’s his M.O.

  • “The most poignant and compelling fear, grief, and worry that I am hearing is from people who come from groups at least periodically targeted by Mr. Trump’s campaign rhetoric. This includes Latino (especially Mexican) immigrants, Muslims, those of Arab background, and refugees from the Middle East, notably Syria.”

    Interesting. Because most of the fear, grief, and worry that I am hearing is from white non-Muslims concerned on other people’s behalf. A Hispanic immigrant friend of mine posted online about how this isn’t the end of the world and people shouldn’t freak out, and the result was a white person arrogantly posting back to him that he shouldn’t “forget his heritage”.

    I’m really getting sick of people who aren’t members of groups that would even supposedly be most affected pretending to be so concerned on other people’s behalf.

  • “perhaps surreal is a better adjective”

    That word. I do not think it means what you think it does.

  • 1. For the people in this group, there is nothing that will ever change their minds about the choices that were before the American people on election day. The mere idea that Mr. Trump could even be nominated, much less elected, is enough to condemn anyone and everyone who voted for him and perhaps those who didn’t vote at all but should have (for Mrs. Clinton of course).

    2. The reality of this point underscores just how out of touch academe truly is with the American people. The average American believes there is no real commitment to diversity on most university campuses. Diversity, as used in academe, is simply a means of describing the outward appearance of people. The suggestion that diverse ideas are represented on campuses across our nation is actually laughable. Americans see news reports about conservative intellectuals being protested and uninvited to give commencement addresses or safe spaces being created because undergraduates can’t handle the results of a free election as proof.

    3. This is encouraging and something I hope all Americans embrace. The echo chambers so many have created for themselves do our entire nation a disservice.

    4. The groups you mention in this point feel abandoned by their fellow citizens yet the citizens who elected Mr. Trump felt abandoned by those same citizens. When the outgoing administration was overreaching, often rebuked in the courts, these same people were silent. When the power of the federal government was brought to bear on small business owners and even the Little Sisters of the Poor who simply tried to live out their faith, many of the groups you mention were at best silent and some, at times, complicit. The vast majority of Americans have no quarrel with the groups you mention yet enough of them feel justified in viewing Mr. Trump’s election as the shoe being placed on the other foot.

    5. A certain percentage of Americans are going to have a long four years and quite probably a long eight years ahead of them. That a long time to carry around that much anger.

    6. This speaks volumes about you and the people of your acquaintance. To be clear, Mr. Trump was a terrible candidate. If he was only a flawed candidate, it would be easy to say he is like others who are also flawed and move on. Millions upon millions of Americans see no comparison when placed next to Mrs. Clinton as the other choice. Had the GOP nominated anyone else, I strongly believe the outcome of the election is more than likely the same: a GOP victory. Had the Democrats nominated anyone else to run against Mr. Trump, all bets are off. Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin may have all remained blue had a different Democrat promised to address the economic issues so near and dear to them.

    7. I ask you to consider this data point: Mr. Trump won 3,084 counties out of 3,141 in this election. There is a lot of America out there that people in academe are out of touch with, that a large percentage of economically successful people are out of touch with, that career politicians are out of touch with. Mr. Trump promised to do something about their plight while Mrs. Clinton essentially promised more of what these good people have received for the last eight years. They are not racists, bigots, misogynists, or any other epithet one may want to use to describe them. Largely they are had working, decent people who are tired of feeling like they are getting the short on of a very long deal and were willing to overlook a lot bad behavior from someone who [promised to change that. Oh, and they know folks consider them to be dupes and rubes which was a motivating factor in casting a ballot for Mr. Trump.

    8. Rank and file evangelicals have largely dismissed the anti-Trump evangelicals you refer to here. In fact, don’t be surprised if there is a groundswell of support to oust them from their comfortable positions of leadership in a manner much like the Conservative Resurgence of the 1980’s – 1990’s in the Southern Baptist Convention. It’s bad enough to be insulted by brothers and sisters in Christ. It’s another thing entirely to financially support the people hurling the insults. That will change.

    9. To be hold to either a “red” or “blue” political identity is to compromise. Some people of faith place social justice issues so high on their list of priorities they are willing to overlook other issues while others could never possible consider compromising on that same issue. Abortion is such an issue. One particular evangelical leader comes to mind who was willing to put the issue of abortion aside and support Mrs. Clinton because he felt her position on social justice issues outweighed abortion. Other evangelicals were appalled by this. The suggestion of maintaining an independent moral witness and faithful practice is urgently important, even though we may disagree on what that looks like.

    10. Mr. Trump is not some monster as so many on the left continue to make him out to be. The truth is he didn’t need the job of president and certainly didn’t need to put his family through the events of the last couple of years. He sees problems in America and genuinely wants to try and solve them. His vision of America is quite different than that of his predecessor. As Mr. Obama famously said, elections have consequences. May God guide Mr. Trump and his cabinet over the next four years to lead our nation in a way that is fair and just for all Americans.

  • I recognize that Christians who supported Trump did so for various reasons. Fine.
    What I want to know is what they are doing now. What have they done/said about Bannon — have they called their Congressman to say they are appalled? Have they read enough to know what this man stands for? Do they know that even yesterday he said he was worried about how many “Asians,” were in the Silicon Valley, not merely because of the possibility that immigrants had taken jobs, but because of “civil society.” In other words, minority groups are ruining his sense of what it means to be white, Christian America.
    I want to know if my fellow Christians, — Hillary supporters, Trump supporters, on the fence people — are paying attention to what is happening now, and are ready to speak out for the people they didn’t intend to hurt, but may be getting hurt — right now.

  • Huh? You don’t think Christians should be concerned about anyone who isn’t “them?” Besides the fact that many of us who aren’t members of minority groups have family members and friends who are, it shouldn’t be necessary to identify with someone to imagine their fears. We need to be wary of the single story too — the one Hispanic person who says this, the one woman who says that. That is not data, it is not an argument, it is a single story.

  • I’m just thankful that Jesus never spoke about “the deserving poor,” or the “deserving sinner.”
    And I thought we all wore the label, “loser.”

  • I am very encouraged by the fact that most Americans did not vote for the pres-elect. Nearly 2 million more citizens vote for Sec. Clinton. That means that the majority of Americans are opposed to misogyny, racism, classicism, white supremacy, trickle down economics, isolationism and some of the other issues the pres-elect supported by his words or behavior. That also indicates that in fact the college and university professors and similar knowledge workers were correct about the mood of the nation. The error was in the numbers.

    I have continued to be troubled by the lack of affordable education options for those whose jobs have disappeared via globalization and automation. However, republican legislatures have been very consistent about cutting education budgets on all levels and opposing efforts to make post-high school training more attainable. I wish republican voters had considered that.

  • I can believe this more if I hear that the people who supported Trump but weren’t interested in racism will condemn the appointment of Barron, and watch carefully the actions of Sessions who has been known to say some pretty racist things.

    Yesterday Bannon said he was concerned about the many Asians that live and work in the Silicon Valley. He said specifically, it wasn’t so much about immigrants taking jobs away from Americans unemployed, no, he said, “life is more than economics. This is about our civil society.” Which means, I think, he objects merely to Asian people, as people. Many of whom, incidently, have been living in California since the days of the gold rush. If that concerns you, I expect you to raise your voice. If the growing rate of hate crimes concerns us, I expect us to raise our voices. There are perhaps more than 2 sides here. You seem to want us to understand that. Please act accordingly.

  • Dr. Gushee wants you to understand that (see especially his point #7). People of my acquaintance are outraged when instances of violence (regardless of race) are reported. In fact, people of my acquaintance condemn violence including that which may be racial motivated, motivated by someone’s sexual orientation or gender identification. Suggestions to the contrary are as misguided as the people who would commit such acts against other people.

  • Excellent. I hope they are calling their Congressmen, that’s my point. Perhaps it is a failure of the press to highlight those saying, “I voted for Trump, but this violence sickens me.” Or, a united campaign, “We voted for you Mr. Trump, now drop Bannon.”

    We often hear that Muslims don’t do enough to condemn violence when it is conducted by other Muslims. (Despite public statements of leaders.) I look in vain for other Republican leaders willing to say that Bannon is a very poor choice if the new administration wants to go on record as being fair and unbigoted. Just look at Bannon’s statements about Asians in Silicon Valley today. Where is the outrage?

  • Irrespective of the outcome, if more Americans who had the right and responsibility to vote had done so, the outcome may have been different indeed. I hold no truck with those who are crying the blues, yet failed to exercise their franchise. That said, this is one of Mr. Gushee’s better essays, though for the second selection in a row, he has referred to “academic professional meetings.” citing the “anguished conversation.” In my observation “anguish” is the stock and trade of professional academics; as they are so clearly our moral and intellectual superiors, we must needs be deferential to their exalted perspective, though I grant Mr. Gushee commented thoughtfully on this. “Knowledge workers” is a curious phrase. While I will acknowledge that a great deal of labor is entailed in the accumulation of knowledge, once obtained the labor involved maintaining its currency in the practical marketplace diminishes considerably. This will no doubt offend academic professionals, but I ask them to compare their labors to those of us who actually provide goods and services to the national economy where the results are more readily and strictly quantified..

  • “The
    King will reply, ‘Truly I tell you, whatever you did for one of the
    least of these brothers and sisters of mine, you did for me.’

  • You don’t seem to understand. I have PTSD. I and all other survivors are completely incapable of relaxing our vigilance around known predators, even if we wanted to.

  • Thank you for this very thoughtful article! I hope Trump voters read this and take it to heart. I still can’t understand how my Evangelical friend who thinks it’s sinful for women to cut their hair or wear pants can justify voting for the guy she once equated to Hillary (until it was one or the other) – even over abortion.

  • It’s foolish to ignore the fact that while the hard right in the US has been organizing for the past eight years, coordinating their agendas, those who are not on the right wing have only been more deeply divided by class and race, middle class vs. poor, black vs. white. Not happy talk, but this plays a central role in current conditions as well as in what can be expected.

  • How would voting for Clinton indicate any opposition to classism? Hillary Clinton played a key role in formulating our welfare “reform” agenda that tore so many poor families apart, left so many in hopeless poverty with no way back up. I don’t know if she played a role in Bill Clinton’s choice to sign onto NAFTA, but before launching her campaign, Hillary Clinton was working on selling the TPP to Congress — free trade policies that have ensured the continued growth of US poverty. The US is 20 years into our war on our poor.

  • No, significant tensions, based on class and race, have steadily been rising for years. The fact is that our more fortunate (media, etc.) simply haven’t noticed yet.

    I don’t expect any backlash. There will be the scattered protests that might or might not catch the media’s attention. I think Occupy was our “last hurrah” for the foreseeable future. How many here could risk losing their jobs by “Rising Up,” knowing there’s nothing to fall back on?

  • surreal: marked by the intense irrational reality of a dream

    That fits this countries current situation.

  • By what logic would the poor, the elderly, the disabled, etc., have voted for Clinton? Hillary Clinton played a lead role in formulating those policies that tore so many poor families apart, left so many in hopeless poverty. This has indeed included policies that worsened conditions for the disabled. The Clinton wing in Congress kicked off 2015 with voting to slash food stamps to the elderly poor and the disabled, from $115 per month down to $10. We saw the Clinton wing take the first steps to “reform” Social Security, targeting the disabled. Now add in the facts that Bill Clinton signed onto NAFTA and, before launching her campaign, Hillary Clinton was working on selling the TPP to Congress — increasing job loss and poverty.

    For those who are unconcerned about this, consider Clinton’s long record of support for military aggression. Factor in recent tensions between Putin and Clinton concerning Syria. The longest war in US history has left this country drained militarily and economically, and the US would lose a war against Russia.

    This left a significant number of voters with no choice but to vote third party or withhold their votes.

  • When people see that neither of the main candidates represents them or their greatest concerns, their only choices are to vote third party or withhold their votes. Many concluded that this time, there was no “lesser evil” between the two main candidates.

  • Although I voted for Gary Johnson – a protest vote against two equally flawed major party candidates- I appreciate the objectivity and lack of melodrama in your comments. Reading most of these comments makes me thankful I don’t practice the same kind of self-righteousness Christianity these other commenters apparently do.

    Furthermore, millions of people failed to vote at all, underscoring that they didn’t believe Mrs. Bill Clinton’s bid was worth supporting any more than Trump’s. Millions of others wanted Bernie Sanders, for primarily the same reasons Trump’s supporters chose him. Clinton’s dry, vision-free campaign helped put the
    Democratic Party in free fall (or deeper in), so for those who believe party politics advances their dreams of some idealistic society that The Other Side can’t possibly grasp, you’ll have something else to vent about after you wear yourselves out with Trump hate. How narrow and sad your lives must be. Such energy wasted!

  • You were in the military, maybe in Afghanistan? You’ve suffered a physical or emotional shock so indescribably jolting (death of someone close to you, a chronic or even terminal illness?) Christian that you are, you certainly would not equate self-imposed emotional trauma over an election with a service man or woman who lost a body part in a war zone. No, you wouldn’t do that, would you?

  • Academics and those in the ministry often share the same bubble – the one they believe floats so high above the rest of us.

  • Well, Dr. Gushee, you failed to stay in analytical mode. Indeed, I detect a patina of deference to Trump supporters over those who stand to lose most during the incoming administration.

    You seem inclined to regard the strong response to the election results as ignominious, the more honorable attitude being one of “teachability.” You portray the anti-Trump camp as broadly obstinate, unreasonable, and borderline histrionic (e.g., they think Trump voters are “beyond the pale of human decency”; they’re “pounding” their majority peers) yet seem eager to palliate the President-elect’s rhetoric as potentially empty and harmless. What’s more, you say most Americans are living in “economically homogeneous circumstances” – a patently false statement – but cast Trump supporters as economically disadvantaged compared to the rest of us. You briefly acknowledge the “special reasons” minorities have to feel abandoned, but quickly return to the “defiant” anti-Trumpists you seem most concerned with. Finally, you close with some mawkish pablum about the possibility of Trump as emergent humanitarian, mindful of boundaries and soft of heart.

    Really? I’m willing to grant that you likely wrote (and possibly published) this before hearing of Trump appointees Jeff Sessions, Michael Flynn, and Mike Pompeo – none of them known as moderates (quite the opposite, in fact; they’re just the sort of people Trump as we know him from the campaign would hire) – but surely you know Trump rode a burgeoning tide of white resentment, xenophobia, and misogyny all the way to the White House. For crying out loud, the KKK celebrated his victory, and the so-called “alt-right” (aka white supremacists and white nationalists) regard him as their great white hope!

    Not voting for Clinton is one thing. Voting for Trump is another. I don’t believe it moves a person “beyond the pale of human decency,” but I do believe it marks you as someone willing to compromise human dignity. Whether it’s due to a concern for a single issue (e.g., abortion, ISIS, immigration, etc.), frustration with “the Establishment,” or economic self-interest, a vote for Trump was an endorsement of the Trump brand, including the ugly stuff.

    It seems to me that, if white supremacists want your candidate to win, it’s worth second-guessing your own preferences. And if those same white supremacists celebrate your candidate’s victory, and some of them are given high administration appointments, the only reasonable question becomes: what have I done?

  • Agreed, but If all of Senator Sander’s supporters had voted, or the balance of half the eligible voters who didn’t vote, had voted, then the outcome may have been quite different.

  • Unbelieavable how white “alleged” Christians are rationalizing the 81% white evangelical vote for trump. Its the same level of deep denial that whites never want to accept and acknowledge about their continued hatred, vileness, and disrespect toward Black people. No matter how many immigrants (illegal or not) come to this country, and regardless of their issues, the issue of systemic racism against Black people by white people will ALWAYS be on the table. ALWAYS. What whites never want to accept is that their DNA deep hatred of Black people permeates and poisons every aspect of their moral and ethical landscape…so they end up supporting a moral and ethical degenerate like trump…then set about justifying their behavior…and making up reasons they supported this con man. Trump has violated almost every tenet of the Christian belief hiearchy and white evangelical Christians SUPPORTED HIM ANYWAY. Look up the word “hypocrite” in the dictionary. It will say “white evangelical American Christians.” These are the same kind of people who went to church Sun morning 100+ years ago, then packed a picnic basket, caught the train out to the countryside for the Sun afternoon lynching of a Black person. It was a festive occasion. Something you took your children to. Not made up. Check the Tuskegee University “lynching records.” What I know for sure is this: 1) I will NEVER again go to church with a white person nor set foot in a white church for any reason. 2) I will view ALL whites with a skeptical and jaundiced eye. They are NOT to be trusted at all. 3) I will redouble my daily prayer to the Universe, which is… “Dear Almighties, PLEASE protect me today from the Christians.” Like my old Black Grandmother said long time ago…”You people ought to be ashamed of yourselves.”

  • The reason for anti abortion voters to support Trump, with all his odious baggage, is that they believe the baby in the womb is a human being. If that is true (and the science is settled on that point), then an evangelical cannot support Clinton, who is passionately in favor of a constitutionally protected right to abortion.

  • You might want to actually google PTSD before you go making pronouncements about it from your high horse that make you look like a fool. Therapists noted back in the 70s that rape victims shared the same symptoms as combat soldiers, and the studies have grown more nuanced than that in the last 45 years.

  • What an anal retentive loser with ‘way too much time on his hands! (Did I spell “loser” correctly enough for you?)

    Happy Thanksgiving anyway!

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