Where’s the Bible in Harper Lee’s ‘Watchman’?

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American author Harper Lee speaks with documentary filmmaker and author Mary McDonagh Murphy (L) and family friend Joy Brown (R) prior to the publication of "Go Set a Watchman" at The Prop & Gavel restaurant in Monroeville, Alabama June 30, 2015 in a picture provided by Mary Murphy & Company LLC. Murphy is the director of the PBS/WNET documentary "Harper Lee: American Masters". Harper Lee's unexpected second novel "Go Set a Watchman" goes on sale July 14, 2015. REUTERS/Mary Murphy & Company LLC/Handout via Reuters NO SALES. NO ARCHIVES. FOR EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NOT FOR SALE FOR MARKETING OR ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS. THIS IMAGE HAS BEEN SUPPLIED BY A THIRD PARTY. IT IS DISTRIBUTED, EXACTLY AS RECEIVED BY REUTERS, AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS MANDATORY CREDIT

American author Harper Lee speaks with documentary filmmaker and author Mary McDonagh Murphy (L) and family friend Joy Brown (R) prior to the publication of "Go Set a Watchman" at The Prop & Gavel restaurant in Monroeville, Alabama June 30, 2015 in a picture provided by Mary Murphy & Company LLC. Murphy is the director of the PBS/WNET documentary "Harper Lee: American Masters". Harper Lee's unexpected second novel "Go Set a Watchman" goes on sale July 14, 2015. REUTERS/Mary Murphy & Company LLC/Handout via Reuters NO SALES. NO ARCHIVES. FOR EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NOT FOR SALE FOR MARKETING OR ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS. THIS IMAGE HAS BEEN SUPPLIED BY A THIRD PARTY. IT IS DISTRIBUTED, EXACTLY AS RECEIVED BY REUTERS, AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS MANDATORY CREDIT

American author Harper Lee speaks with documentary filmmaker and author Mary McDonagh Murphy (L) and family friend Joy Brown (R) prior to the publication of "Go Set a Watchman" at The Prop & Gavel restaurant in Monroeville, Alabama June 30, 2015 in a picture provided by Mary Murphy & Company LLC. Murphy is the director of the PBS/WNET documentary "Harper Lee: American Masters". Harper Lee's unexpected second novel "Go Set a Watchman" goes on sale July 14, 2015. REUTERS/Mary Murphy & Company LLC/Handout via Reuters NO SALES. NO ARCHIVES. FOR EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NOT FOR SALE FOR MARKETING OR ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS. THIS IMAGE HAS BEEN SUPPLIED BY A THIRD PARTY. IT IS DISTRIBUTED, EXACTLY AS RECEIVED BY REUTERS, AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS MANDATORY CREDIT

Author Harper Lee speaks with documentary filmmaker and author Mary McDonagh Murphy (L) and family friend Joy Brown (R) prior to the publication of “Go Set a Watchman.” Photo by Mary Murphy & Company courtesy of Reuters.

Harper Lee’s “new” book “Go Set a Watchman,” set from a rediscovered 1950s manuscript she wrote before “To Kill a Mockingbird,” is infused with religious life and Christian moral argument from its title to its final words.

It’s also a book with splashes of humor, enough Victorian poetry references to send readers scrambling for a Norton Anthology, and Bible allusions as the narrator of both novels, Jean Louise “Scout” Finch, grows up to own her own life.

Examples (spoiler alert!) range from small moments to an epic showdown over race, justice and sin in which, as David Gushee writes, the saintly Atticus Finch of “Mockingbird” is revealed as a “polite racist.”

The book starts out lightly. When Jean Louise’s long-time suitor proposes, there’s the lingo of Genesis. “I, like Israel of Old, have labored seven years in the vineyards of the University and the pastures of your father’s office for you,” says Henry (Hank) Clinton.

Unlike Jacob (Israel), however, Hank doesn’t get the wrong bride (Leah) or labor seven years more for his true love (Rachel). Jean Louise was counseled by her aunt, who thinks Hank came from poor white trash, to marry her own “kind.” In this book, “kind” isn’t just about class or race.

The ritual of baptism comes to life in a childhood flashback, as Jean Louise recalls the re-enactment of a tent revival played out with her brother, Jem, and sidekick, “Dill. ”

In “Watchman,” Jem is an unseen memory, a man who died in his 20s.  Here, young Jem delivers a sermon on the devil in Maycomb, Ala., setting for the novel. The kids have a fine time until Scout and Dill fall to battling between a Methodist “sprinkle” and a Baptist “immersion” in a murky pond. Who is truly living a Christian life, a moral life, is the question just under the surface.

Anyone who has endured a fracas over music at worship will appreciate the Methodist church scene of outrage in the pews when the congregation’s music director, fresh from summer music camp, tries to “pep up” the organ music and abandon familiar “Southern hymns.”

Signs like this one, photographed in 1938 by Ben Shahn, would have been common in the era of "Go Set a Watchman."  Photo from Library of Congress

Signs like this one, photographed in 1938 by Ben Shahn, would have been common in the era of “Go Set a Watchman.” Photo from Library of Congress

Only later does the fear of losing the Southern way, rigid segregation, become clear as the crisis point of the novel, the reason that Atticus and Hank tolerate the Klu Klux Klan and participate in the white “Citizens Council.”

Another key “Mockingbird” character missing here is Boo Radley. He was the hidden-away, childlike innocent neighbor, the harmless creature whose timely rescue of little Scout and her brother in “Mockingbird” sets up that book’s title. Rather than be made a public hero, shy Boo is allowed to return to his “place” because putting him in the spotlight would be like killing a mockingbird, says Scout.

In “Watchman,” there’s a cruel flip side to this seemingly so very Christian kindness. Atticus wants all people he sees as “childlike” – this includes all black people – overseen by the paternal wisdom of white society.

Jean Louise, who believes herself colorblind, is shocked to the core, bereft over what she sees as a betrayal of the father she idolized. The book’s final chapters are a dense legal, moral and psychological showdown as the young adult Jean Louise fights with her father over truth and equality.

In “Mockingbird,”  he’s the voice of racial justice, battling for an innocent black man accused of rape – the central conflict of the novel and the film portrayal by Gregory Peck. In “Watchman” Atticus is still interested in justice but views black people as inferior and unfit to govern their own lives.

“Have you ever considered that you can’t have a set of backward people living among people advanced in one kind of civilization and have a social Arcadia,” he says.

A customer picks up a copy of author Harper Lee's novel "Go Set a Watchman" at a Waterstones bookstore in London, Britain on July 14, 2015. "Go Set a Watchman" is the much-anticipated second novel by "To Kill a Mockingbird" author Harper Lee. Photo courtesy of REUTERS/Neil Hall

A customer picks up a copy of author Harper Lee’s novel “Go Set a Watchman” at a Waterstones bookstore in London Photo by Neil Hall courtesy of Reuters.

She battles back, aligning herself with religious truth:

“You are telling them that Jesus loves them, but not much. You are using frightful means to justify ends that you think are for the good of most people…You just try to kill their souls instead of their bodies. You just try to tell ‘em, ‘’Look, be good. Behave yourselves. If you are good and mind us, you can get a lot out of life, but if you don’t mind us, we’ll give you nothing and take away what we’ve already given you.’”

Lee chose her title from Isaiah 21:6 : “For thus hath the Lord said unto me, Go, set a watchman, let him declare what he seeth.”

Who is the watchman?

Atticus’ brother, Uncle Jack, brings it home: “Every man’s island, Jean Louise, every man’s watchman, is his conscience.”

If Atticus was the moral spine of “Mockingbird,” in “Watchman” that spine is Jean Louise, stepping out of the murky pond of childhood to claim her own, Bible-steeped moral identity.

  • ben in oakland

    “Where’s the Bible in Harper Lee’s ‘Watchman’?”

    as far as I can remember, it was being trotted out as justification for jim crow, segregation, and miscegenation laws.

    http://philsnider.wordpress.com/2012/10/20/city-council-speech/

  • Laura

    Yes, that would be the slavery, eugenics, Jim Crow, segregation, abortion bible belonging to the left.

  • Jen

    Funny how a “god” came up with a playbook that has such wide disagreement about what it says.

    Take some time to let your overtaxed brain relax, lose a few stereotypes, and then think about that for a few minutes.

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  • alison

    So true, Laura.

  • Suzon Gordon

    I thought this was the “real” book, showing us the “real” South as Lee would have wanted in the first book had her editors not edited it all out. It was wonderful and gave voice to a whole generation and the conflicts that were to become full-throated in the 1960s.