Rabbi Jonathan Sacks: Confronting the roots of violence

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Chief Rabbi, Lord Sacks. Photo courtesy of Blake-Ezra Photography

Chief Rabbi, Lord Sacks. Photo courtesy of Blake-Ezra Photography

(RNS) Religious zealots fill newspapers and screens with bloody images of bombings and beheadings. They kidnap children and make them into soldiers. They pray before they rape women.

But “not in God’s name,” says Rabbi Lord Jonathan Sacks, the former chief rabbi of Great Britain, who just published a book by that title.

“The greatest threat to freedom in the post-modern world is radical, politicized religion,” Sacks writes. Religion News Service asked Sacks how people can kill in the name of God, and how religion can counter religious extremists. The interview has been edited for length and clarity.

Q: You write that the world is moving into a more religious age, and that this is not necessarily a good thing. Why?

A: Ours is an age of unprecedented radical change, and people search for something that doesn’t change, that is eternal. And of all such things, God is the ultimate. And there is a specific factor in the Middle East, Africa and Asia, and that is the perceived failure of Western regimes. That is leading to a whole series of religious counterrevolutions. That’s what’s happening in Iraq and Syria. It’s what happened in Iran. To some extent it is happening in India with Hindu nationalism.

And throughout the world, the more religious you are, the more children you have. Simply on an actuarial basis you can predict that the world will be more religious a generation from now. I am not giving thanks here for a more religious age. The truth is that not all the great religions and not all the great leaders of religions are fully adapted to living in a world of complexity and diversity. And the face religion is showing the world today is not a smiling one.

"Not In God's Name" by Jonathan Sacks. Photo courtesy of Schocken Books

“Not in God’s Name” by Rabbi Jonathan Sacks. Photo courtesy of Schocken Books

Q: “Not in God’s Name” examines Torah stories to show how even violent biblical episodes teach love toward the stranger. You want this exercise repeated with other sacred texts, but not by you. Why?

A: Because a Jew cannot do it for a Christian. Only a Christian can do it for a Christian. Only a Muslim can do it for a Muslim. I just thought it helpful for people in other religions to be able to see how we do it in Judaism.

Q: You note in your book that those committing the worst atrocities in the name of religion often know little about their own faith and care less about the faith of others. They’re not reading your book, so who did you write it for?

A: This book is meant to encourage a recruitment and inspiration of a new generation of religious leaders — Jewish, Christian, Muslim, Hindu, Sikh, you name it — who will lead the great faiths a generation from now in such a way that they make space for one another, in coexistence and mutual respect. This book is a long-term call to all the faiths, to make space for the religious “other.” It’s not a quick fix. There is no quick fix.

Q: Speaking of the “religious other,” you tackle the concept within the book in terms of sibling rivalry, in particular with the story of Jacob and Esau. Why focus so much on sibling rivalry and how it plays out on the world stage?

A: I was looking at the very roots of human violence. The two people who have had the most profound insight in the 20th century were Sigmund Freud and Rene Girard. Girard’s book “Violence and the Sacred” was a very prophetic work. It appeared in the 1970s, and he predicted that religion and violence would both continue into the future. Both Freud and Girard point to sibling rivalry as a real driver of human violence. Freud thought that the No. 1 driver was the hostility of sons toward their fathers. But if you look through world literature, you’ll see that sibling rivalry is much more significant — in Egyptian myth, Greek myth, the Roman story of Romulus and Remus, or the Hebrew Bible itself. If you were to rid the world overnight of religion, there would still be violence.

Q: This week marked the 50th anniversary of Nostra Aetate, the Vatican document that decried anti-Semitism and promulgated a more brotherly relationship between Catholics and Jews. How has Pope Francis modeled engagement with other faiths?

A: Francis has acknowledged the spiritual contribution of Judaism to the world more affirmatively than any previous pope. And Nostra Aetate has shown how centuries of estrangement and hostility can be reversed, by one single, generous gesture within a faith. That for me is a great signal of hope. If it can happen between Catholics and Jews, then it can happen between Christians and Muslims, and between Jews and Muslims. But it will take really open leadership that understands that what God is calling us to in the 21st century is something very challenging and very new.

Q: Does Judaism need its own Pope Francis, somebody who can model this faith? Does Islam?

A: We need that in every faith and we need it very seriously. In 1942, one of the darkest periods of human history, in Britain Archbishop of Canterbury William Temple and Chief Rabbi of Great Britain Joseph Hertz formed the Council of Christians and Jews. That was a signature gesture at a very crucial period. I  think the Dalai Lama today has shown likewise. It is a matter of personal humility and the generosity of your embrace.

YS/MG END MARKOE

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  • Bernardo

    “and how religion can counter religious extremists? ” And the answer: Admit that there is no god and simply follow some simple rules of living. e.g. Do No Harm.

  • Fran

    Religion should follow Jesus’ instructions to love our neighbor as ourselves (Matthew 22:39) and even to love our enemies and pray for those persecuting us (Matthew 5:44).

    Yet, many religions still get involved in politics and resulting warfare, killing their fellowman. Jesus also said that the distinguishing mark of true Christians would be love among themselves (John 13:35).

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  • Jack

    God bless Jonathan Sacks and may God lead him in all ways on the paths of truth and love.

    The way to counter toxic religion is through healthy religion. This is something the New Atheists and radical skeptics refuse to consider because their dogma blinds them to it.

    But as Rabbi Sacks implies, we have no choice, for as the late Fr. Richard John Neuhaus correctly foretold back in the 1990s, the 21st century would see religion re-emerge to replace nationalism as an organizing principle.

    So to counter toxic religion with no religion is to ensure the triumph of toxic religion over all, theist and atheist alike. This is something no sane human being should want.

  • Jack

    Illogical on its face, Bernardo, unless you enjoy throwing babies out with bathwater.

  • Jack

    Someone who knows a wee bit of Hebrew should do a you-tube search of Rabbi Sacks’ video of a few years ago (2008), honoring Israel’s 60th.

    He takes “oseh shalom” and gives it a gorgeous melody which is sung by children and men. But be forewarned that the melody is addictive.

  • Bernardo

    Jack,

    Recognizing the flaws, follies and frauds in the foundations of Islam, Judaism and Christianity, the “bowers”, kneelers” and “pew peasants” are converging these religions into some simple rules of life. No koran, bible, clerics, nuns, monks, imams, evangelicals, ayatollahs, rabbis, professors of religion or priests needed or desired.

    Ditto for houses of “worthless worship” aka mosques, churches, basilicas, cathedrals, temples and synagogues.

    http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html

    Religion………………………… Adherents

    Christianity ……………………..2.1 billion

    Islam…………………………… 1.5 billion

    Irreligious/agnostic/atheism…… 1.1 billion

    Hinduism 900 million
    Chinese traditional religion 394 million
    Buddhism 376 million

  • Religion will always be with us simply because for some reason we need it.
    The man who has expressed so much hate at the beginning of these comments
    has a serious emotional problem and I would guess a very strong “HURT” relating to a church or some other house of worship. Granted, he in his hurt
    as expressed some very real faults of religion. Religion can be a tool of oppression and evil, but also a healing process. Who has not been HURT by
    dishonest “religious” I have that’s for sure. Nothing is “fair” not even the
    church, temple, or any other religious organization. However I prefer it to
    the absolute evil of civil oppression such as China.

  • Roger

    Rabbi Sacks is one of the foremost religious thinkers today. As with many forward-thinking people, the mass public takes no heed from them because the public is non-participatory. We should attempt to propagate Lord Sacks’ words widely.
    You can help by sending his interview to many names on your email list! It is a first step: become a participant!

  • It is true religion that the world needs. The world has enough false, man made religions. True religion comes from God, not man. God revealed Himself to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (Israel). Through whom He gave us His Words (Holy Scriptures), and through whom He brought us the Savior/Messiah. Religion for religion sake is useless, it is of no value. Truth comes from God, not from man. “I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life; no one comes to the Father, but by Me.”….Jesus Christ/Messiah Receive Him as Savior and Messiah. Turn away form sin and false religion. Follow Him through His Word and by His Holy Spirit, and know God’s peace in this life and promise of eternal life. Shalom