An artistic rendering of what a future recomposition facility might look like. Image courtesy of Recompose

Composting may offer the latest option in green burials

SPOKANE, WASH. (RNS) — Having one’s body composted after death and turned into about 1 cubic foot of soil could soon be an option for Washington state residents.

The approach, called recomposition, is currently being discussed by lawmakers and, if approved, could become a legal third option for after-death care by 2020.

“A lot of people might be reluctant to think or talk about death and might find the whole thing icky, but for the most part people are quite intrigued,” said Sen. Jamie Pedersen, a Democrat who is sponsoring the legislative bill.

He said the world has been re-shaped by innovation, and funerals should be no different.

In Washington state, dead bodies can either be cremated or buried, but Pedersen said both are damaging to the environment and expensive.

“Cremation takes a gigantic amount of energy … and with traditional burial they typically embalm the bodies by draining blood and adding chemicals,” he said. “There are environmental issues with both methods."

Recomposition is a natural process that breaks down the body by placing it in a reusable vessel, covering it with wood chips and aerating it, which creates an environment for microbes and necessary bacteria.

The process takes about 30 days, according to Recompose, the Seattle-based company behind the idea. The soil that is created from the body can either be given to the families or they can donate it to conservation land.

"Recomposition allows us to give back to the earth that supports us all our lives," the company claims on its website.

Recompose plans to charge around $5,000 for its services.

The company recently co-sponsored a study, the Recomposition Science Project, at Washington State University and found that composting human bodies is environmentally sound. The study included examining and adapting techniques that have been developed for composting livestock.

Recompose CEO Katrina Spade, left, and Washington State University Researcher Dr. Lynne Carpenter-Boggs. Photo courtesy of Recompose

 This image is available for web publication. For questions, contact Sally Morrow.

“It is an understandable tendency to limit the amount of time we spend contemplating our after-death choices, but environmental realities are pressing us to develop alternatives to chemical embalming, carbon-generating cremation and the massive land use requirements of traditional cemeteries,” Recompose founder and CEO Katrina Spade said in a news release.

She added that, if every Washington state resident chose recomposition, it would save more than .5 million metric tons of CO2 within 10 years — enough to let 13 million seedlings grow into trees for 10 years.

According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, about 2.7 million people die annually in the U.S. More than half (53.5 percent) are cremated. The National Funeral Directors Association, though, reports that more people are showing an interest in green burials.

Green burials, also called natural burials, minimize environmental impacts by not embalming, re-thinking burial containers and protecting the natural habitat with the goal of limiting waste and reducing the carbon footprint.

James Olson, a natural burial expert and owner of Olson Funeral Home and Cremation Service in Sheboygan, Wisconsin, said natural burials aren’t a new concept, though it may seem otherwise.

“Green burials have caught on, but it’s been going on all along; it just got a name now,” he said.

It wasn’t until the Civil War, when dead soldiers had to be transported back to their families, that embalming became commonplace in the U.S., said Olson.

The practice continued over the years as people became more transient and were no longer buried on the family homestead.

Olson said the U.S. is one of the few countries that still embalms bodies and doesn’t re-use grave space.

“The U.S. likes concrete boxes; it’s what we got used to,” Olson said. He said that’s changing as more families are wanting a service that reflects their eco-friendly lifestyle.

Many families, he said, opt to have a body not embalmed, to have it embalmed with formaldehyde-free products and/or request biodegradable clothing, shrouds or a casket for burial.

A 2017 Pew Research Center report revealed that 74 percent of U.S. adults feel that “the country should do whatever it takes to protect the environment.”

Some religious traditions embrace a green burial approach. Jews are often buried, without embalming, in a wooden coffin held together with wooden dowels rather than nails. The idea is that the coffin and the body will both decompose and return to the earth.

Thomas Lynch, a funeral director and author of the forthcoming book “Whence and Whither: On Lives and Living,” a text about what comes after death, said he wasn’t surprised to learn about Washington state’s recomposition efforts.

“Everyone wants to be really useful in their demise,” he said. “It has not so much to do with the method of disposition, but the participation in it.”

Seeing those wishes through can be healing for those left behind, he said.

“There’s this proper, useful energy created when the living are responsible to the dead for getting the dead to where they need to go,” said Lynch, who has been a funeral director in Michigan since the 1970s.

He said most people choose cremation in his state. Families are invited to see the process, but most decline. Out of sight, out of mind is how today’s culture deals with death, he explained.

He wants that to change.

“I think probably the culture is moving in the direction of paying to have it done rather than picking up their end of the shovel, or fire, or in this case a compost heap,” he said. “So I think this (recomposition) will be another sort of flash in the pan until people figure out a way to deal with their dead as a way of dealing with death.”

Lynch added that younger generations, who may grow their own food, for example, would likely be most interested in recomposition.

The Washington State Legislature is also looking to allow alkaline hydrolysis, which is a chemical process that dissolves the body using a liquid solution, leaving behind bones that can be ground into ash and using less energy than cremation. It’s currently legal in 16 states.

Pedersen noted that these changes wouldn’t eliminate the option for burial or cremation but would instead allow additional choices.

Having those choices is important, he said, since we all have to deal with what happens to our bodies in the end.

“Every one of us is going to have to face death eventually,” he said.


  1. Making soil out of people is one step closer to soylent green!

  2. Why not require cemeteries to allow for burial of a body that has not been embalmed and using only a wood or wicker coffin or cloth shroud without a cement vault? There are plenty of old cemeteries still in use that had those type of burials in the past.. These new environmental options seem gimmicky. There is a certain beauty in old well established cemetery with a variety of headstones and very mature trees shading the graves.

  3. You are more or less describing an Orthodox Jewish burial.

  4. So there is hope that Spuddie may yet serve a useful function.

  5. now now…..with the material that Tater is filled with, one doesn’t need composting…

  6. How dissimilar is this from feeding cow parts to cows and causing Mad Cow disease?

  7. “By the sweat of your face you shall eat bread until you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken; you are dust, and to dust you shall return.” (Genesis 3:19)

    In other words, we’re all destined to become compost anyway, so what’s the fuss about?

  8. Wouldn’t a more natural and dignified response be a return to simple burial, using biodegradable caskets (i.e. wood) and bypassing big, expensive vaults and environmentally unfriendly embalming materials?

    Sure, we all push up daisies sooner or later. I’d just prefer that the daisies not be actually be planted in me.

  9. “Wouldn’t a more natural and dignified response be a return to simple burial, using biodegradable caskets (i.e. wood) and bypassing big, expensive vaults and environmentally unfriendly embalming materials?”

    That is essentially the standard Jewish and Muslim funeral. Even the memorials are not particularly large or imposing for the most part.

  10. There is the step where one is turned to soil. Plus not every plant out there is for food. It could easily be used for trees, grass and shrubs.

  11. So glad Mark is blocked. Couldn’t be bothered to read his comment. But I guess when produces so much bullcrap, they are more useful for fertilizer when alive. 🙂

  12. If that is one’s wish.

    Do you object to organ donation as well?

  13. only if they were yours tater – too many eyes 🙂

  14. lol……………… you have some indication of how you appear to us – tater tot 🙂

  15. Oh Sandi, you will be so disappointed in your afterlife. 🙂

  16. Not at all. I accepted Christ’s offer gratefully. What about you. Also, was that the best you could come up with?

  17. It would make me feel much better knowing you are in a good relationship with Jesus, Tater. I would like that very much for you. It would make you feel better too

  18. Now let’s tell you a story about a man named Jesus:

    God raped, by proxy, inseminated a virgin named Mary, in order to bring his son incarnate into our world.
    A cowardly action….

  19. Insofar as the incarnation did not involve any sexual contact, and Mary’s participation in it was completely consensual, it would seem your “rape” accusation completely fails on two counts.

    Did you even try to think it through before you typed that?

  20. I log in sometimes just to read TT’s comments for the laugh. And they make good illustrations when I’m writing or presenting on the deficiencies of contemporary thought processes.

  21. ohhhhhhh……well he got me thinking maybe there was some hope for him yet, yesterday, but he also quickly rectified that error in thinking on my part. :0

  22. You were there?!!
    Give it a break – All you have is a fable written by dumdums in their new cult – copied from previous cults …

    Time to grow up ….
    [even if the tall tales were true – there are still no gods…]

  23. It would seem that you have an idiot’s fable which you choose to believe in (this is the 21st century)

  24. The issue of the concrete vault, which doesn’t have to be an elaborate affair, just four slab walls and a slab top, is for the implementation of heavy lawn care equipment in large garden like cemeteries. Go to an old public cemetery where vaults weren’t used and the bodies and caskets have disintegrated and the graves have fallen in. Those cemeteries are usually in poor repair because their poor condition prohibit the use of modern tractor lawnmowers.

  25. Most folks aren’t embalmed today. Many families opt for immediate burial. If they wish to view the deceased one final time, that can be arranged without need for embalming. Embalming is only required by law under certain circumstances, usually because of a lack of local refrigeration for the dead.

    Simple vaults are available to prevent the grave from caving in during lawn care.

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