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Willow Creek investigates Hybels as pastor quits over new allegations

The Rev. Bill Hybels, center, and his two successors, lead pastor Heather Larson, left, and lead teaching pastor Steve Carter, right, of Willow Creek Community Church. (Larson and Carter photos courtesy Willow Creek Community Church; Hybels via AP/Charles Dharapak)

CHICAGO (RNS) — Willow Creek Community Church announced it will commission an independent investigation of sexual harassment allegations against founding pastor Bill Hybels, a day after one of the two pastors who succeeded Hybels resigned over the church’s handling of the matter.

Heather Larson, lead pastor at the influential evangelical Chicago-area megachurch, announced the investigation Monday (Aug. 6) in an email to church members. The inquiry will be led, Larson said, by an advisory council of Christian leaders from across the country and funded by an anonymous outside donor.

Steve Carter, who was named lead teaching pastor alongside Larson in April, announced his resignation on his blog Sunday (Aug. 5) over differences with how the church has handled the allegations against Hybels. Carter did not appear at Sunday services  at Willow Creek’s main campus in South Barrington, Ill.

“At this point … I cannot, in good conscience, appear before you as your Lead Teaching Pastor when my soul is so at odds with the institution,” Carter wrote.

A March investigation by the Chicago Tribune and later reporting in Christianity Today documented several women’s claims that Hybels had invited them to hotel rooms, commented on their appearance and in one case given a former co-worker an unwanted kiss. The Tribune also reported allegations against Hybels previously had been investigated by Willow Creek’s elders and an outside law firm, but he was cleared of wrongdoing.

Carter blogged about some of his concerns in late June and offered an apology for the church’s initial response, writing, “I recognize that I am not blameless in this.” (Larson, who has co-led the church with Carter since Hybels’ resignation, also apologized then in a written statement.)

Carter reportedly gave church leadership notice of his intent to resign several weeks ago and was asked to continue in his role until they decided how to make his resignation public.

But he said that he was compelled to resign immediately by a “horrifying” report that appeared Sunday morning in The New York Times detailing new allegations against Hybels by a former executive assistant. 

Pat Baranowski, who worked for Willow Creek and also lived with the Hybels family in the 1980s after her marriage ended, alleged in the Times report that Hybels had fondled her breasts, rubbed against her and once engaged her in oral sex.

After years of the alleged harassment, Baranowski told the Times, she confronted Hybels about it, calling the behavior sin and telling him she felt humiliated. She moved out of the Hybels’ house as his treatment of her changed and he sketched out a plan for her to leave Willow Creek.

“It was heartbreaking yesterday to read about the new allegation against Bill Hybels in the New York Times. We have deep sadness for Ms. Baranowski. The behavior that she has described is reprehensible,” Larson wrote in her email to the congregation.

Hybels, who resigned from Willow Creek in April, months ahead of his planned retirement, has denied all allegations against him from women connected to the congregation.

Carter’s resignation comes days before the start of the Willow Creek Association’s annual Global Leadership Summit, held at the church’s main campus and simulcast around the world.

Actor Denzel Washington and author and speaker Lisa Bodell already had pulled out of the summit. It is expected to include a statement about the allegations and a session about “creating a healthy work environment for men and women,” according to Christianity Today, and 111 sites planning to simulcast the event had canceled, the magazine’s report said.

Several publishers also have stopped printing books by Hybels — including Tyndale House Publishers, which suspended publication of “Everyone Wins When a Leader Gets Better,” which was set to be published this month.

About the author

Emily McFarlan Miller

Emily McFarlan Miller is a national reporter for RNS based in Chicago. She covers evangelical and mainline Protestant Christianity.

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  • It’s almost as if the attempt to confine the discussion to the Catholic context and to blame it all on gay priests has been a total red herring, isn’t it?

    As if we’re dealing with a systemic problem that runs from faith community to faith community, from institution to institution, that’s rooted in patriarchal systems that give men astonishing entitlement and a sense of ownership — and as if these problems of abuse will not be rooted out until faith communities and institutions face that fact.

  • Maybe if all male clergy were to become eunuchs…this sexual abuse all come to an end?

    Deuteronomy 23:1-2
    “No man with crushed or severed genitals may enter the assembly of the LORD. No one of illegitimate birth may enter the assembly of the LORD, nor may any of his descendants, even to the tenth generation.”

    Isaiah 56:3
    “…And let the eunuch not say, “I am but a dry tree.”

    Maybe then the church kids and women will all catch a break!

  • An investigation of a church pastor is “funded” by an ANONYMOUS outside donor? Is that crazy or what? And they are calling in an “advisory council” so-called Christian leaders from across the country? To do what? Hypnotize the attenders so they don’t just quit like Carter did? Dang, these big institutions are a piece of work when it gets right down to the business model.

  • “these problems of abuse will not be rooted out until faith communities and institutions face that fact”

    The problem is, as the Roman Catholic Church has demonstrated so well, most faith communities do not have the institutional wherewithal to “face that fact”.

  • You may need to cut out their tongues as well, this latest victim testifies to him forcing oral sex on her.

  • It makes sense, an investigation by an outside source, such as a law firm, is an expensive proposition. So someone has quietly offered to provide the funds for the church to pay for such an investigation. I see nothing untoward in that.

    I also see nothing amiss in an advisory council that is assembled to assist a large church in crisis to move forward. If you recall, that was done in the case of the Backers, Jim & Tammy Faye, and their money grubbing “ministry.”

    Sadly, Jim Bakker has completed his prison term, conned another denomination to ordain & credential him and he is on the air making bizarre & idiotic claims & prophecies. He recently said that The Left would be coming for “Christian” leaders like him and chopping off their heads!

  • The problem is, as your posts and William D. Lindsey’s demonstrate so well, the majority of faith communities have a different faith than your own.

  • In the Catholic context the cause and the effects were primarily homosexual bishops and priests.

  • So evangelical churches are finding it hard to locate someone who treats women equally and with respect, huh? I wonder why they would have such a problem? I mean, it’s not like their core doctrines say the exact opposi– oh, wait.

  • For those determined to continue pretending that (and lying about) the abuse situation in the Catholic church and other churches is all about homosexuality, Peter Rowe’s article yesterday in the San Diego Union-Tribune entitled “#ThemToo: Adults, the overlooked victims of clerical sexual abuse” is, well, inconvenient. Rowe writes:

    In 2010, a Catholic priest from the San Diego diocese sexually assaulted Rachel Mastrogiacomo.

    This story would be all-too-familiar except for one fact: Mastrogiacomo was 24, a grown woman.

    For years, the clergy sex scandal has focused on abused children. Now, the #MeToo movement and a growing recognition of the pervasiveness of sexual power plays is encouraging victimized adults to come out of the shadows.

    “Finally,” said Esther Miller, who led an adult victims workshop at last month’s national convention of the Survivors Network of those Abused by Priests (SNAP), “women are coming together and saying no more.”

    Rowe then goes on to recount Rachel Mastrogiacomo’s painful story of being groomed by a Catholic priest and raped during Mass.

    The attempt of people fixated on gay-bashing to pin the abuse situation on gay priests is further complicated by two recent disclosures:

    1. Cardinal McCarrick was made a cardinal by Saint John Paul the Great, a pope who, along with his henchman Cardinal Ratzinger, issued vicious attacks on gay folks — and Saint John Paul the Great made McCarrick a cardinal after the Vatican had full information about McCarrick’s activities. It was that same Saint John Paul the Great who protected the notorious abuser and founder of the Legionaries of Christ, Marcial Maciel.

    2. Monsignor Tony Anatrella, who crafted the Vatican’s policy — under Saint John Paul the Great — barring gay men from the priesthood was relieved of his clerical duties recently by church officials after repeated allegations that he abused men who came to him for “reparative” therapy were judged credible.

    Gay-bashing my be psychologically satisfying for some twisted people using religion to vent their hatred of those different from themselves, but it’s not going to resolve the abuse situation in the churches and other institutions. Not by a long shot.

  • I’m shocked that evangelical leaders, those self-appointed paragons of moral rectitude, are once more proven to be simply male primates like the rest of us.

  • ” an independent investigation of sexual harassment allegations ”

    I would be skeptical given past church investigations

    This shows that churches are not special – any organization where power rests in one man is prong to abuse.

  • I will say this (not in defense..I am an atheist). I was surprised that the church has a female pastor…for most evangelicals..especially Baptists…that’s a hug no no.

  • Bob Arnzen: The problem is, as your posts and William D. Lindsey’s demonstrate so well, the majority of faith communities have a different faith than your own.

    PRRI, May 2018, “Emerging Consensus on LGBT Issues: Findings from the 2017 American Values Atlas”:

    Most religious groups in the U.S. now support same-sex marriage, including overwhelming majorities of Unitarians (97%), Buddhists (80%), the religiously unaffiliated (80%), Jewish Americans (77%), and Hindus (75%). Roughly two-thirds of white mainline Protestants (67%), white Catholics (66%), Orthodox Christians (66%), and Hispanic Catholics (65%) also favor same-sex marriage. A slim majority of Muslims (51%) favor same-sex marriage, but only 34% are opposed; 15% offer no opinion on this issue.

    Over the last five years, opposition to same-sex marriage among nonwhite Protestants has dropped considerably. Most notably, black Protestants have moved from solid opposition to a plurality of support for same-sex marriage. In 2013, nearly six in ten (57%) black Protestants opposed same-sex marriage.4 Today just 43% oppose it, compared to nearly half (48%) who support it. Hispanic Protestants have moved from solid opposition to same-sex marriage to being divided over the policy. In 2013, nearly two-thirds (65%) of Hispanic Protestants opposed same-sex marriage. Today, 43% favor the policy, compared to 45% who oppose it and 13% who offer no opinion.

    Opposition to same-sex marriage is now confined to a few of the most conservative Christian religious traditions. Only about one-third (34%) of white evangelical Protestants support same-sex marriage today, while nearly six in ten (58%) are opposed, including 30% who are strongly opposed. And just 40% of Mormons support same-sex marriage, compared to 53% who are opposed. Jehovah’s Witnesses, a racially mixed religious group, are the exception. Just 13% support the policy, compared to 63% who oppose it. However, nearly one-quarter (24%) of Jehovah’s Witnesses express no opinion on this issue.

    https://www.prri.org/research/emerging-consensus-on-lgbt-issues-findings-from-the-2017-american-values-atlas/

    Since you’re writing under a pseudonym, Mr. “Arnzen,” and we have no idea what religious community you represent, perhaps you’d care to inform us about the conservative Christian religious tradition you represent as you claim that your marginal views represent the views of all Christians? I believe you’ve purported to be Catholic, but clearly, you do not represent the views of the Catholic community in the U.S. on this or any other issue.

  • I appreciate that you hate pseudonyms except for the chosen few you don’t harass who use them at http://bilgrimage.blogspot.com/ e.g.:

    https://disqus.com/by/Sarasi1/

    https://disqus.com/by/rekrall/

    https://disqus.com/by/1yRolandoOFS0/

    and so on.

    Given your proven track record of becoming personal fast, wise people who disagree with you will never share any personal information with you under any pretext whatsoever, even “double dog dare you”.

    I don’t believe you’re in a position to lecture anyone on what is Catholic or being Catholic.

    Yes, you cite a lot of polls.

    No, you never cite any authoritative Christian teaching, Catholic otherwise.

  • https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/priest-evil-gay-bishops-persecute-blackmail-faithful-priests-who-might-expo

    All organizations have sexual abuse problems.

    https://pantheon-live.religionnews.com/2018/07/20/church-of-england-to-test-aspiring-clergy-for-skill-aptitude-and-narcissicism/

    “Anxiety about the quality of those who aspire to become clergy is rooted in the series of child sex abuse scandals that have emerged from Anglicanism’s mother church over the past 20 years.”

    However, not every organization suffered abuse problems consisting 80% of male-to-male contact and extended cover-ups.

    That appears to be attributable to the rise of homosexual bishops with control over both seminaries and discipline – among them Joseph Cardinal Bernardin, Theodore Cardinal McCarrick, Bishop John Russell, Archbishop Rembert Weakland, Bishop Daniel L. Ryan, Bishop Patrick Ziemann, Bishop Anthony O’Connell, Bishop J. Kendrick Williams, Bishop J. Keith Symons – who knowingly permitted men who did not meet the criterion for ordination into the seminaries, who looked other way when offenses occurred, and who subverted the operation of Canon Law.

  • So, who is the inspector for the crushed or severed genitals? Talk about a recruiting nightmare……?

  • One phenomenon that has not received much attention or study (as far as I know) is the exodus of young nuns in the 1960’s. One has to wonder if one factor in the exodus was predatory priests.

  • Ted haggard got independently investigated, and a national panel of pastors helped him to become certified heterosexual at least twice, maybe three times.* They just applied a lot of commercial grade “Gay Away”, and it worked its magic. Gay away now comes in several scents: ManlY Man, No Lavender.

    So of course, they are perfectly fit to investigate this.

  • BobWorld is Catholic. It’s pretty obvious. Of course he maintains that he never said so. But then, he also maintains that he is a nice guy and super smart.

  • So, you’re saying the same national panel of pastors and investigators are investigating Bill Hybels?

    Happen to have a url or two?

  • What is obvious is that, unlike you, I am versed in the major Abrahamic religions.

    I not only maintain that I never said so, I state now that I never said so.

    Ben in Oakland, on the other hand, is gay.

    It’s pretty obvious.

    And he said so.

    See the difference?

    I thought not.

  • “lead pastor Heather Larson”…

    there’s the first problem right there – Scripture prohibits female leadership over men in a church – 1 Timothy 2:12.

    If you don’t like it, either change the rules of hermeneutics or get your eraser out and remove it from your Bible…

  • Really. That’s the *first* problem? You read a story about a male pastor’s sexual harassment of several women, but the FIRST problem to you is that they now have a female pastor?

  • if you want to argue over word positioning or semantics, go ahead. Any church that disregards Scripture and appoints a female as lead pastor has an erroneous interpretation of Scripture in the first place.

  • The ‘brick and mortars’ spiritually died along time ago. “Eternal Security” is heresy. Could very well be what Jude warned us about.

  • Yes, I frankly have always thought, why can’t we do major editing of the Bible? Pull out our Sharpies and get to work!

    Why does some fourth century committee in Anatolia and King James get to do peer review — and we don’t?

  • Only if you say ” say “please” or be damned to hell forever.” Only threats of eternal punishment work with me.

  • Hermeneutics– the exquisitely fine art of getting your holy book to say exactly what you need it too…
    this week.

  • What Bob really knows how to do is hurl stupid insults at everyone who disagrees with his spewed hate.

  • “On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life”.
    You mean like THAT book…?

  • What edd really knows is how to characterize other people’s responses to his anti-Catholicism as “spewed hate”.

  • If the present elders of Willow Creek cannot handle the situation internally in the church, the whole place ought to disband. The idea of getting secretly-paid-for investigations and outside consultants tells me that the whole operation is a business, not a ministry.

    As for Jim Bakker, I do not consider him an outlier in the Religious Right. His brand of ridiculousness is now mainstream in the Evangelical Community—–much to the detriment of both real Christianity and the United States of America. The best thing that could have happened 10, 20, 30 or 40 years ago is for religious broadcasting to have been replaced by endless loops of Gomer Pyle, a fictional good guy, but at least an actual GOOD guy in his character.

  • I’m with you in recognizing the deeply rooted dysfunction in patriarchal systems, and I’ve been naming it in Catholicism (my own faith tradition) for years. That said, it’s a societal issue that goes well beyond religious institutions. The lion’s share of recent allegations (Harvey Weinstein, Matt Lauer, Kevin Spacey, Les Moonves, et al) have nothing to do with religion.

    It’s seems obvious enough, but still needs to be said. Power corrupts and systems that grant inordinate, unchecked power to individuals aid and abet that corruption. That’s the heart of the problem.

  • Considering that the alleged abuse well predates Rev. Larson’s tenure, it seems it isn’t the “first problem” at all. You need to choose your scapegoats more carefully.

  • Thank you for demonstrating so clearly what I was talking about earlier today when I wrote:

    “Given your proven track record of becoming personal fast, wise people who disagree with you will never share any personal information with you under any pretext whatsoever, even ‘double dog dare you’.”

    https://disqus.com/home/discussion/bilgrimage/bilgrimage_anatrella_and_the_homophobic_catholic_two_step_footnote_to_this_mornings_posting/#comment-4027266976

    “William D. Lindsey Mod > Sarasi1″ (a pseudonym btw)

    “Yes, I’m pretty certain that’s the case, Sarasi. If you look at when NCR shut down its commenting feature and when ‘Bob Arnzen’ created his Disqus account, you’ll see he did so not long after the NCR threads shut down. And there’s the same modus operandi: constant vicious ad hominem attacks on one poster after another, a pattern of stalking (he’ll post within a very short time sometimes when I leave a comment, which tells me he’s tracking my comments), the representation of himself as the end-all and be-all of Catholic truth (though, vis-a-vis the current pope, not so much), the ugly homophobia. He also recently told someone else posting at RNS that he remembered her from NCR and she’s a confused old lady who doesn’t know what she’s talking about.”

    “This is, I’m fairly sure, Ed Hu reincarnated. I have long wondered if Opus Dei pays for him to troll religion news websites.”

    It’s such a perfect example of how, for you, it is ALL about personalities and NEVER about facts that I’ve bookmarked it.

    Were you more interested in facts, you might still be teaching at Belmont Abbey College.

    And, no, I am not Ed Hu – but if you hate him he must be a great guy.

  • That would be the one. Some people sure had some funny ideas, didn’t they? like men were superior to women, white people superior to everyone, Christians superior to everyone. Why, in our own day, a certain class of so called christian actually believes that there is only one correct interpretation of an ancient book, and everyone else is doomed to burn in hell. What the hell ceazy talk is that?

    Of course, whether Darwin meant races as we understand the word, or in the more general term of species, very common in his day. Is another matter. I myself have written the words “cat’s are a very strange race.”

    Omigod! I’m a cattist and a racist both.

  • What Bob does not know is that I am an honors grad of my state’s leading Catholic high school and that I have published numerous items in leading Catholic publications.

  • Edd, that was about 80 years ago.

    Give us a url on one published article in one Catholic publication.

  • speaking of “funny ideas”, how’s that “nothing created everything” argument working ?

  • nah…all goess to your mindset … anti-Christian…either an agnostic or atheist chiming in on an issue that he has no real understanding of.

  • noooooooo…the mindset of denying Scripture and installing a female as “lead pastor” is actually the proximate cause or underlying problem of all their issues. Departing the clear teaching of Scripture IS the the “first problem”…

  • So you people keep telling me. Like everything else you people have to say, I don’t believe a word of it.

    If you don’t like what I have to say, you can either ignore me, block me, or continue to insist that you know things that are clearly just your opinion. However, other Christians will insist that you are wrong and that they are right. That is also their opinion, and every bit as “valid” as yours.

    So, until you can actually produce something called evidence, I’ll continue to assume that you are just stating your opinion. I don’t really care.

  • Can you prove that? Or are you just asserting it? Because unless you were there, as literalist Christians assert that there is no proof for the Big Bang because no one was there, I would say you are just asserting something without evidence.

    And what is asserted without evidence can be dismissed without evidence.

    But actually, I have a great deal of evidence more for belief that you are full of it. I have the evidence of every other religion in the world that your religion is dead wrong. In fact, I have the evidence of Christians and jews that your type of Christianity is wrong. 2/3 of the world believes the Christian story is complete nonsense.

    I think I’ll go with the majority.

  • So they were punished before the offense? Interesting approach. Absurd, but interesting.

  • And since the church does have a female pastor, you just shot a big hole in Brian”s post. Much thanks.

    P.S. And even in churches where the pastors have always been male, you’ll see no shortage of women.

    Jesus gives women the true, God-given egalitarian respect that they will NEVER find with the atheists and seculars.

  • “And even in churches where the pastors have always been male, you’ll see no shortage of women. Why?”

    I can’t speak for all churches. I grew up in the SBC. The reason women attended was due to childhood indoctrination. They were told from childhood that they must obey the men.

    Actually, Paul was misogynistic – “I never allow a woman to speak in church. She must be silent.”

    Also, texts in Timothy specifically forbid women from being pastors, elders or bishops.

    I cannot speak for all atheists or all secular humanists but the ones I know are very pro-women. It is sad to see that in some secular organizations, you do see the same stuff as well…like with the allegations against Shermer.

    Sexual harassment by powerful famous men is not limited to religious nor secular orgs. It is a problem centered on too much power for one man.

  • nobody can “prove” God – but here’s some evidence He exists:
    1. Whatever begins to exist has a cause of its beginning.
    2. The universe began to exist.
    3. Therefore, the universe has a cause for its beginning.

    The only reasonable explanation for a finely tuned universe to have a cause of beginning is for there to be timeless eternal omniscient omnipotent transcendent Creator, otherwise known as God.

    Actually, you have no evidence for your position because you have no authoritative basis other than “the majority” opinion to argue with. Your “truth” is relative so therefore you and “the majority” are left to your own autonomous subjective interpretation to validate your position…which is vapor.

    OTOH, in the Bible, I have proof of fulfilled prophecy, Biblical and extra-Biblical eyewitness testimony, archaeology, etc. Scripture has been intentionally and unintentionally verified by independent secular historians. It has 66 separate books written by 33 authors on different continents over several thousand
    years with the same contiguous theme and thousands of objective independent researchers have studied the old manuscripts finding no errors – this indicates that it was written through men under a supernatural influence.

    But by all means – side with the willfully ignorant majority…

  • yes, you care – or you wouldn’t keep replying.
    See…? I haven’t blocked you nor ignored you.
    But it’s not just my opinion – it’s truth that you don’t want to face…

  • No, you just want to outlaw abortion, because Christian pedophiles require a constant supply of fresh babies to f*ck.

  • “MISOGYNISTIC: adjective of MISOGYNY: a hatred of women” — Merriam Webster

    “In the modern world many people rather casually assume, or assert, that the Apostle Paul was a misogynist based upon his teachings concerning the differing roles of men and women in the church and in marriage in the early church.” — Dr. Richard Land

    Not ignoring the rest your post, but your claim that “Paul was misogynistic” is as well-known as it is false. It’s yet another of those “skeptic claims” that Christians cannot allow to slide.

    So I offer some quickie information, two links that prove Paul isn’t mysogenistic.

    http://www.equip.org/bible_answers/must-women-be-silent-in-church/
    http://roysummersblog.blogspot.com/2017/10/was-apostle-paul-woman-hater.html

  • Actually, I keep seeing where online Atheists (in multiple discussion forums!) really ARE exhibiting a problem with their basic Bible study & hermeneutic skills.

    No disrespect, no insult, but there’s just too much illiteracy, too much Sub-Zero bible-skills, coming from the atheist, agnostic, and hybrid (or alien-hybrid) communities. Honestly, I keep wanting to ask:

    What the Hades is this unholy mess? Why are you Atheists attempting to argue the Bible with online Christians without carefully studying the book first? Why are you copying stale Gummy-Worm arguments from stale Gummy-Atheist websites? Incompetency wipes out the credibility of Atheism!!

  • I judge Paul misogynisitic. You obviously do not, Agree to disagree.

    I don’t see fundy Land as much of a valuable source.

  • Shocked that Catholic Priests, the self exalted paragons of immoral Erectitude are proven again and again to be simply male primates? Why would that shock you? It’s only been that way for 1600 years…..

  • Let’s double down on your understanding Char, Catholic is NOT Christian so you are clearly speaking of weirdo Catholic Priests in your posts.

  • Yes Char, the ” Systematic Rape of little Boys is just Catholic. The other Religious Organizations have isolated issues NOT systemic!

  • So far…Nonsense is ALL that has come out of you. Unsubstantiated Nonsense….Let me ask you Char….Are you a Juvenile?

  • OK Char, now we are playing your childish games? Then sticks and stones may break my bones but names will never hurt me…..!

  • Char, I just combed through the Wikipedia list of Trans people murdered. A sad and disheartening list for sure. It does appear to mostly be Black on Black crime. I do not see how Black on Black crime is or was relevant to the discussion.

  • You are lying. Many of those killers remain at large, so their race is still a mystery.

    I just find it concerning that floydlee, a black man, condones the ongoing genocide against gay and trans people, including those within the African American community.

  • I didn’t lie…The vast majority of those crimes occured in the Big Cities which are Black and Hispanic populations… The Black Males are known to commit crimes against Trans people. This is a fact.

  • Do NOT bother responding, You just can not engage in light hearted dialogue with anyone. What a Skunk of a personality you have….

  • I don’t talk to my sexist, racist, homophobic, transphobic, xenophobic, religious bigot family anymore, for good reason.

  • They are, actually. They pretend that I’m still they’re daughter, and they try to take credit for my accomplishments.

  • Can’t deny I’m in awe of your ability to pretend that you’re the opposite sex and to copy and paste Wikipedia links.

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