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Southern Baptist seminary report ties founders to slaveholding, white supremacy

Boyce College on the campus of Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, Ky., on Nov. 29, 2018. Boyce College is named for James Boyce, the seminary’s first president, who was a slaveholder. RNS photo by Adelle M. Banks

LOUISVILLE, Ky. (RNS) — Founders of one of the nation’s largest seminaries owned more than 50 slaves and said that slavery was morally correct.

But an internal investigation found no evidence the school was directly involved in the slave trade, according to the seminary’s president.

A 71-page report released Wednesday (Dec. 12) from Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, the Southern Baptist Convention’s flagship seminary, says its early trustees and faculty “defended the righteousness of slaveholding.”

“They argued first that slaveholding was righteous because the inferiority of blacks indicated God’s providential will for their enslavement, corroborated by Noah’s prophetic cursing of Ham,” the report reads. “They argued second that slaveholding was righteous because southern slaves accrued such remarkable material and spiritual benefits from it.”

The seminary was founded in 1859 in Greenville, S.C., but suspended operations in 1862 during the Civil War and reopened in Louisville in 1877.

R. Albert Mohler Jr., president of Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, Ky. RNS photo by Adelle M. Banks

The Southern Baptist Convention was founded in 1845 when its members defended the right of missionaries to own slaves. Southern Seminary President R. Albert Mohler Jr. told Religion News Service the investigation expanded the knowledge and truth of what that defense meant.

“What we did not know and should have known was the degree to which open expressions of white racial supremacy were a part of the defense of slavery even on the part of some of the founding faculty of this school,” he said.

The report demonstrates how interwoven Southern Seminary’s history has been with the wider racial and political history of the denomination and the nation. It follows a 1995 resolution passed by Southern Baptists on the 150th anniversary of the denomination in which they said “we lament and repudiate historic acts of evil such as slavery” and “we genuinely repent of racism of which we have been guilty.”

Brantley Gasaway, chair of Bucknell University’s religious studies department, said the report, like the earlier resolution, is “symbolically significant.” It shows that some Southern Baptist leaders have grown in their sensitivity to diversity and racial reconciliation, he said.

But he said it did not point to substantive policy or structural changes.

“The leaders of Southern Seminary confess and lament their racist heritage, but they pledge only to continue to welcome and celebrate racial diversity at their institution,” said Gasaway, whose research focuses on evangelicals. “Such an approach reflects most evangelicals’ view that racial reconciliation does not necessarily include any reparations or recompense for the injustices suffered by minorities.”

Mohler said his decision to call for a one-year investigation by a team of six faculty — three African-American and three white — was prompted by actions of other institutions of higher education, specifically Princeton University, which released a report last year on its ties to slavery, including the sale of slaves on its campus.

Mohler said Southern was not found to be involved in the slave trade as an institution.


RELATED: Museum highlights ‘Slave Bible’ that focuses on servitude, leaves out freedom


Asked if the seminary will apologize for its founders’ stances, Mohler said he could offer “a very clear statement of institutional sorrow,” but it is not possible to apologize for the dead.

“We certainly want to make very clear that we are a very different institution than we were then,” he said, noting its more recent history of inviting the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. to the school in 1961. That visit prompted white Southern opponents in the Baptist denomination to withhold money from the school and the seminary’s president at the time to issue an apology.

Asked if the seminary is repenting for its ties to slavery, Mohler said “to the extent that repentance rightly applies, we surely repent.”

“The problem is theologically repenting for the dead,” he said.  “We cannot repent for the dead.”

A portrait of James Boyce, the first president of Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, hangs in the president’s office in Louisville, Ky. RNS photo by Adelle M. Banks

In his written introduction, Mohler said he rejoices in the “new humanity” now demonstrated on his campus. He expressed appreciation for the school’s black students, alumni, trustees and faculty. In its 2017-18 academic year, the seminary had 228 blacks enrolled, comprising 4.26 percent of the total student body of 5,354.

“Right here, right now, we see students and faculty representing many races and nations and ethnicities,” he wrote. “Our commitment is to see this school, founded in a legacy of slavery, look every day more like the people born anew by the gospel of Jesus Christ, showing Christ’s glory in redeemed sinners drawn from every tongue and tribe and people and nation.”

Among other findings: 

  • Seminary faculty sought to preserve slavery after the election of President Lincoln. James Boyce, the seminary’s first president, “believed that sudden secession would be disastrous, and that negotiation with the Republicans would produce guarantees of protection for slavery.” Boyce was the only one of the four founding professors who served in the Confederate Army, where he was a chaplain.
  • John A. Broadus, another founding faculty member, presented resolutions at the 1863 meeting of the Southern Baptist Convention that pledged Southern Baptist support for the Confederacy. They were adopted unanimously. He later supported a possible move to a new location for the seminary that was “in a white man’s country.”
  • Joseph E. Brown, whom the report described as “the seminary’s most important donor” and its trustee board chairman from 1883 to 1894, earned a substantial part of his fortune from the exploitation of mostly black convict-lease laborers. His iron furnaces and coal mines, once described as a possible “hell on earth,” used torture and other harsh punishments that were similar to those exercised by slave drivers. Brown gave a gift of $50,000 to the seminary that helped saved it from financial collapse.
  • In some instances, seminary faculty urged humane treatment of blacks. But before the 1940s, faculty members “construed the Old South as an idyllic place for both slaves and masters” and “claimed that the South went to war to uphold their honor rather than slavery.” They also supported black theological education as long as it was segregated.
  • The support of white superiority, which was taught by seminary faculty, was exemplified in the writings of Edgar Y. Mullins, president of the seminary from 1899 to 1928: “It is immoral and wrong to demand that negro civilization should be placed on par with white. This is fundamentally the issue.”
  • The seminary refused requests by blacks for admission for decades. When the seminary had its first black graduate, Garland Offutt, who earned a master’s of theology in 1944 (and later a doctorate in 1948), it did not permit him to participate in the regular commencement festivities. He instead was awarded his degree during the term’s final chapel service. Blacks first participated in graduation services in 1952.

The reports concludes with a statement about the seminary’s eventual rejection of white supremacy.

“This report documents the contradictions and complexities of the experience of Southern Baptists and race in America,” it reads. “We have not overcome all the contradictions, but we are committed to doing so.”

About the author

Adelle M. Banks

Adelle M. Banks, production editor and a national reporter, joined RNS in 1995. An award-winning journalist, she previously was the religion reporter at the Orlando Sentinel and a reporter at The Providence Journal and newspapers in the upstate New York communities of Syracuse and Binghamton.

52 Comments

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  • As long as you are reminding the victims of the past, it helps to keep them from seeing the wrongs done against them today.

  • Is anyone particularly surprised by this? Southern Evangelical Christianity was extremely pro-slavery. You’d probably have a hard time finding a Southern Baptists University of similar age that *lacked* a similar record of supporting it. Southern Evangelical support of slavery was the rule, not the exception, and Christian support of slavery was rooted in racism.

  • What’s intentionally missing in this article is “a report delineating [the progressive liberal Methodist denominational] ties to slavery”. For not just those conservative, pro-Trump, Southern Baptists but their liberal, pro-Clinton Methodist counterparts, too, historically, were slave owners!

    “In the antebellum South, Methodism was largely connected to slave owning. All of the bishops within the Methodist Episcopal Church were slave owners from 1846 until slavery was abolished, and many members of the church were slave owners as well.”

    Source: Wikileaks, where else.

  • I dispute “extremely pro-slavery”.

    A more accurate assessment would be “tolerant of slavery and the pro-slavery proponents”.

  • Absolutely but they won’t go that far because are those other denominations not pro-homosexuality” How can they slur those they uphold? Why Sir, is that not anti-liberal?

  • So your answer is deflection towards other sects. Because everything repugnant is OK if someone else did it too.

  • Post-Cold War Whataboutism can be of critical value, yes, of course.

    You Ashiests & None-sensers pick on SBC because Kil… I mean Hillary lost. Slavery is smokescreen. I’ll bet there were slaveowners in your family tree, which makes you forever a slaveowning racist. All the Ashiests & None-sensers around were once bred by slaveowners. But OMG HpO! That’s a whataboutism! To which I spit, WhatAboutIt?!

  • Exactly. Or as our Pester (which rhymes with Pastor – get it?) Ben in Oakland would say, Bang On! This will never stop, of course, until a Dem lives in the White House Plantation once again. Evangelical-bashing is here to stay, looks like. Brace yourself. By putting on The Armor of God & Jesus – one size fits all.

  • “Post-Cold War Whataboutism can be of critical value, yes, of course.”

    If the goal is deflecting a conversation and avoidance. It is of critical value. For actual rational and honest discussion, not so much.

  • WHAT IS THE POINT OF THIS EXERCISE, R.N.S.?! – considering that:

    (1) “History shows slavery helped build many U.S. colleges and universities”, APM Reports, September 4, 2017.

    (2) “Beyond Yale: These other university buildings have ties to slavery and white supremacy”, USA Today, February 13, 2017.

    (3) “How Slavery Shaped America’s Oldest And Most Elite Colleges”, NPR, September 17, 2013.

    (4) “How America’s Elite Universities Benefited From Slavery”, Time, November 7, 2017.

    (5) “9 Big Name Colleges You Didn’t Know Benefited From Slavery”, Atlanta Black Star, December 8, 2014.

    (6) “The Forgotten Racist Past of American Universities”, New Republic, March 26, 2015.

    (7) “America’s Top Colleges and Universities Have a Hidden Legacy of Slavery”, American Renaissance, October 24, 2013.

    (8) “Confronting Academia’s Ties to Slavery”, The New York Times, March 5, 2017.

  • Rebecca the church (and Jacob) still use the goodly raiment of Esau since they think Isaac (our LORD Jesus) is blind.

  • Didn’t know Esau was a slaveowning Southern Baptist, and Rebecca a slaveowning Methodist. Useless to decipher there, but I gave it my best 2 out of 3 shot.

  • The Republicans and the right wing of the Democrats both in practical terms support modern day slavery by way of their support for systems that encourage precarious employment and other exploitative employment practices.

  • Well, yes, I’m surprised that the Seminary took the time and made the effort to record once and for all what is plainly and painfully obvious to all but the most-dense historical revisionists. It helps to have a factual basis from an authoritative source when someone next argues that the South mainly left the union for reasons other than slavery.

  • That’s fair. I suppose it was a bit surprising they admitted it, even if the history itself isn’t remotely surprising.

  • “They argued first that slaveholding was righteous because the inferiority of blacks indicated God’s providential will for their enslavement, corroborated by Noah’s prophetic cursing of Ham,” the report reads.

    While these white supremacy theologians are looking for ways to justify their stance (and with scripture) , I have some scripture for them to consider:

    Deu 24:7 If a man be found stealing any of his brethren of the children of Israel, and maketh merchandise of him, or selleth him; then that thief shall die; and thou shalt put evil away from among you.

    Exo 22:7 If a man shall deliver unto his neighbour money or stuff to keep, and it be stolen out of the man’s house; if the thief be found, let him pay double.

    Exo 22:8 If the thief be not found, then the master of the house shall be brought unto the judges, to see whether he have put his hand unto his neighbour’s goods.

  • The first time the word love mentioned, it was the love of the Father for His Son, “And he said, Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah” (Genesis 22:2) [Isaac is a picture of Christ.]

    The second time the word love mentioned, it was the love of a man for his bride or the Christ for His church “and he loved her: and Isaac was comforted after his mother’s death.” (Genesis 24 last verse) [Rebecca is a picture of the church]

    The third and fourth times the word love mentioned, “And Isaac loved Esau, ….: but Rebekah loved Jacob.” (Genesis 25:28) [God so loves the world ….. but the church loves Jacob….. with the raiment of Esau. ]

    PS the raiment, garment, … of Esau is the man’s righteousness. Remember the fig leaves.

  • Umm, “founded in sin”??

    Last time I checked in my hometown, every single church, mosque, temple, homeless shelter, food pantry, and public school, was founded by ordinary human sinners, (hence “founded in sin”).

    Each and every one of said founders and attendees, need or needed an all-powerful, all-holy, all-loving Savior to get saved, cleansed & healed, just like everyone else needs.

    So, did you enjoy participatein in last Sunday’s church services at your favorite local Sinners’ Church?

  • …Which explains why the black employment rate is so excellent under President Trump, even better than any of Obama’s rates during his 8 years.

  • Perhaps he fancies himself one of the “Righteous”. If only he had been in Sodom when God was looking for a few righteous men there…

    Then again, he is a Vestry member of an Episcopal Church, so he may be an authority on a “Cult…founded in sin” -not to mention what they have been promoting lately.

  • It is not surprising that the founders of Southern Seminary were slave holders. Remember that slavery was the reason that the Southern Baptist Convention split from the anti-slavery Baptist churches in the North. The lesson of the founding of Christian seminaries in the South had much more to do with economics than regional differences among churches. Most of the economic wealth in the South was tied up in slaves. Not only were the slaves valuable assets, the value of large plantations depended on slave labor to preserve their value. In addition, American style slavery expanded the generation of wealth through the declaration that the children of slaves were born into slavery. In the history of slavery, that was something new. According to the “Smithsonian” magazine, Thomas Jefferson once wrote a letter to George Washington telling him that he had discovered that his net wealth was increasing by 4% every year just from the births of new slaves. He recommended that Washington consider increasing the birth rate on his plantation. According to the article, he never received a reply.
    Dangerous times arise when wealthy, powerful individuals, see their economic health threatened. This is even more evident when they see their good fortune bestowed on them by God. Surely God would not have blessed them so richly if he opposed what they were doing. Instead they seek to justify what they are doing through Scripture and telling themselves that what they are doing is ultimately good. What we need to ask ourselves is if we would have acted any differently if our economic health had been so threatened? When this continent was first being settled by Europeans, slavery was embraced as a solution to the problem of not enough laborers to cultivate and harvest food for a growing population. It started as a trickle, but when it became clear that tobacco was the one crop that would secure the success of American settlements through trade with Europe, the trickle became a steady stream. Perhaps the Civil War could have been avoided if wiser heads in the 17th Century could have said no to slavery. By the 19th Century, it was too late.

  • Catholic bishops lent moral support to slavery during the Civil War; they opposed only the slave *trade*.

  • CORRECTION: “Rebecca is a picture of [NOT] the church” – but the mother of The Jew Twins. One Jew, faithless & condemned; the other, a born-again Christian, Messianic Jew & blessed forever. Their apostle Paul said so in Romans 9:6-13, and you don’t know your bible:

    “They are not all Israel who are descended from Israel; nor are they all children because they are Abraham’s descendants, but: through Isaac your descendants will be named.’ That is, it is not the children of the flesh who are children of God, but the children of the promise are regarded as descendants. For this is the word of promise: ‘At this time I will come, and Sarah shall have a son.’ And not only this, but there was Rebekah also, when she had conceived twins by one man, our father Isaac; for though the twins were not yet born and had not done anything good or bad, so that God’s purpose according to His choice would stand, not because of works but because of Him who calls, it was said to her, ‘The older will serve the younger.’ Just as it is written, ‘Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.'”

  • And then there is this:

    From: http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1855948_1861760_1862212,00.html#ixzz0jg0lEyZj

    “Facing calls to curb child sex abuse within its churches, in June the Southern Baptist Convention — the largest U.S. religious body after the Catholic Church — urged local hiring committees to conduct federal background checks but rejected a proposal to create a central database of staff and clergy who have been either convicted of or indicted on charges of molesting minors. The SBC decided against such a database in part because its principle of local autonomy means it cannot compel individual churches to report any information. And while the headlines regarding churches and pedophilia remain largely focused on Catholic parishes, the lack of hierarchical structure and systematized record-keeping in most Protestant churches makes it harder not only for church leaders to impose standards, but for interested parties to track allegations of abuse.”

  • I know the English language can be skewed & corrupted to say oxymoronic stuff like “modern day slavery”, but must your brain also? Heads up: “precarious employment … exploitative employment practices” are not “slavery”. Oh wait I remember now; you flunked Economics 101. And you’re that dropout who once said, Abolition never happened.

  • So s*tan, what is this word, “sin”?

    “s*tan 13 hours ago … a year ago … 6 months ago … Southern Baptist … was founded in sin … Committing sin [is] dismissing God’s command to learn about reality … [and] follow[ing] the teachings of John Calvin & Oliver Cromwell [instead]”.

    Let me rephrase that. So s*tan, what is this word, “sin”?

  • Wait, what? “[You] have some scripture for [white supremacy theologians] to consider”? So where do you think you are now? Are you having a bible study right now with “white supremacy theologians”?

  • Now do one up for the rival Methodist Church, because as you know but don’t want us to know: “In the antebellum South, Methodism was largely connected to slave owning. All of the bishops within the Methodist Episcopal Church were slave owners from 1846 until slavery was abolished, and many members of the church were slave owners as well.”

  • “And then there is this”:

    This Atheist Message has been brought to you by:

    Neil deGrasse Tyson.
    David Silverman.
    Lawrence Krauss.
    Al Franken.

  • Thank you for your Baptist teaching. I used to believe that until I found out Jesus said the Moses, prophets and the Psalm is all bout Jesus in His first day of resurrection. (Must be important to have been missed for two days.)

    Now I feel safer waiting for the rapture.

  • Republicans and Democrats over the last 3 decades have presided over an erosion of worker rights, creating gig, contingent and alternative work with steadily fewer benefits and systematically weakening trade unions who help to protect workers, Meanwhile the multiple between CEO and worker pay and inequality more widely has exploded. It’s created a boiling cauldron of discontent.

  • “Do not let any unwholesome talk come out of your mouths, but only what is helpful for building others up according to their needs, that it may benefit those who listen.” Ephesians 4:29

  • Don’t weasel your way out of this self-embarassing episode just yet. I ain’t thru with you. 1st off, there is no “rapture”. 2nd, what you’re debunked with ain’t no “Baptist teaching”. Read it yourself; it’s your own apostle Paul’s in Romans 9:6-13 telling you off, You don’t know your bible, which otherwise would’ve taught you like the Sunday School Kiddie that you are, that “Rebecca is a picture of [NOT] the church” – but the mother of both the Jesus-rejecting, faithless, hence condemned Jew like Esau; and the other one like Jacob, a born-again Christian, Messianic Jew, and, therefore, blessed forever.

  • So, in keeping with that prooftext, “listen” up, ‘yo, and “benefit” something from being called out the False Accuser that you are!

  • That’s breaking news: but what’s the #MeToo lowdown & dirt on “also Bill Gates and Warren Buffett” that you’ve scooped out, exactly? Do tell.

  • “Do not let any unwholesome talk come out of your mouths, but only what is helpful for building others up according to their needs, that it may benefit those who listen.” Ephesians 4:29

  • HpO: If you look at the third sentence in my post, you will notice that I refer to Christian seminaries in the South, not Baptist seminaries. I fully recognize that most Christian denominations in the South supported the institution of slavery including the Methodists. Slavery is a vicious, contemptible reality that still exists today. The buying and selling of human beings like livestock violates every Christian principle, and the purpose of my post was to try to explain why people who considered themselves good Christians could go to war over this vile practice.

  • Jacob was the chosen for blessing and curses. Esau is the red blooded son, a picture of the world.

    “I have loved you, saith the LORD. Yet ye say, Wherein hast thou loved us? Was not Esau Jacob’s brother? saith the LORD: yet I loved Jacob, And I hated Esau, and laid his mountains and his heritage waste for the dragons of the wilderness. Whereas Edom saith, We are impoverished, but we will return and build the desolate places; thus saith the LORD of hosts, They shall build, but I will throw down; and they shall call them, The border of wickedness, and, The people against whom the LORD hath indignation for ever. And your eyes shall see, and ye shall say, The LORD will be magnified from the border of Israel.” (Malachi 1, last book of condemnation of Jacob)

    For God so love the world…. The time of the Gentiles has been here for two days as Jesus spent two days with the Samaritan village. Thank you Jesus. Amen.

  • So instead of addressing the behavior you instead attack the bearer of the information. Perfect example of dodging the comment, just like tRump, Franklin Graham, etc..

  • What hypocrisy and a hypocrite – both! “Addressing the behavior [and] attack[ing] the bearer of the information” – both – is your forte, s*tan!

  • I was merely stating that the ‘bible” did not give these slave owners justification for their sin as they wanted to infer. Even today some people still use bible scripture to justify past slavery. It just proves they were/are not biblical or lovers of Christ; just religious bigots.

  • Sure, “the ‘bible’ did not give these slave owners justification for their sin”. The gospel truth, however, is that all born-from-above, fired-up and die-hard followers (including you, if you qualify) of THE Christ Jesus of the gospels, epistles and revelation – secular slaves and the secular free alike – are all spiritual slaves to Masser Christ Jesus! And I mean, LITERALLY.

    The New Testament Greek word for that, occurring more than 110 times, is δουλος. It means someone who, having no ownership rights of her or his own, belongs to Another – with the clear understanding that this doulos now lives, by faith, under Masser Christ Jesus’ authority as His devoted follower! Such understanding is derived – plainly and uncomplicatedly – from the use of that word δουλος in a given sentence, paragraph and/or chapter.

    Here, do the math, for the multiple and endless times δουλος is used: 30x in Matthew, 5x in Mark, 27x in Luke, 9x in John, 3x in Acts, 5x in Romans, 4x in 1 Corinthians, 1x in 2 Corinthians, 4x in Galatians, 3x in Galatians, 2x in Philippians, 4x in Colossians, 1x in 1 Timothy, 1x in 2 Timothy, 2x in Titus, 1x in Philemon, 1x in James, 1x in 1 Peter, 2x in 2 Peter, 1x in Jude, and 13x in Revelation.

  • Did you really dare compare American slavery to bandage to Jesus Christ.There is no comparison! American slavery was in hate and abuse while bondage in Christ is a love relationship.
    Sent from my MetroPCS 4G LTE Android device——– Original message ——–From: Disqus Date: 12/15/2018 3:03 PM (GMT-05:00) To: [email protected] Subject: Re: Comment on Southern Baptist seminary report ties founders to slaveholding, white supremacy
    “Sure, “the ‘bible’ did not give these slave owners justification for their sin”. The gospel truth, however, is that all born-from-above, fired-up and die-hard followers (including you, if you qualify) of THE Christ Jesus of the gospels, epistles and revelation – secular slaves and the secular free alike – are all spiritual slaves to Masser Christ Jesus! And I mean, LITERALLY.
    The New Testament Greek word for that, occurring more than 110 times, is δουλος. It means someone who, having no ownership rights of her or his own, belongs to Another – with the clear understanding that this doulos now lives, by faith, under Masser Christ Jesus’ authority as His devoted follower! Such understanding is derived – plainly and uncomplicatedly – from the use of that word δουλος in a given sentence, paragraph and/or chapter.
    Here, do the math, for the multiple and endless times δουλος is used: 30x in Matthew, 5x in Mark, 27x in Luke, 9x in John, 3x in Acts, 5x in Romans, 4x in 1 Corinthians, 1x in 2 Corinthians, 4x in Galatians, 3x in Galatians, 2x in Philippians, 4x in Colossians, 1x in 1 Timothy, 1x in 2 Timothy, 2x in Titus, 1x in Philemon, 1x in James, 1x in 1 Peter, 2x in 2 Peter, 1x in Jude, and 13x in Revelation.”

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    HpO

    Sure, “the ‘bible’ did not give these slave owners justification for their sin”. The gospel truth, however, is that all born-from-above, fired-up and die-hard followers (including you, if you qualify) of THE Christ Jesus of the gospels, epistles and revelation – secular slaves and the secular free alike – are all spiritual slaves to Masser Christ Jesus! And I mean, LITERALLY.The New Testament Greek word for that, occurring more than 110 times, is δουλος. It means someone who, having no ownership rights of her or his own, belongs to Another – with the clear un derstanding that this doulos now lives, by faith, under Masser Christ Jesus’ authority as His devoted follower! Such understanding is derived – plainly and uncomplicatedly – from the use of that word δουλος in a given sentence, paragraph and/or chapter.Here, do the math, for the multiple and endless times δουλος is used: 30x in Matthew, 5x in Mark, 27x in Luke, 9x in John, 3x in Acts, 5x in Romans, 4x in 1 Corinthians, 1x in 2 Corinthians, 4x in Galatians, 3x in Galatians, 2x in Philippians, 4x in Colossians, 1x in 1 Timothy, 1x in 2 Timothy, 2x in Titus, 1x in Philemon, 1x in James, 1x in 1 Peter, 2x in 2 Peter, 1x in Jude, and 13x in Revelation.

    3:03 p.m., Saturday Dec. 15

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  • Right there. All I need to know. Nope, you don’t qualify, as alluded to earlier. It’s like casting pearls before Pre-Pork Chop Cretins just now. Good luck with that, Grandma.

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