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Why Poles need to talk about the Holocaust

Polish anti-Semitism has a long history. Poland should deal with it.

A road sign in Poland points to the city of Kielce, site of an anti-Jewish pogrom in 1946.

A road sign in Poland points to the city of Kielce, site of an anti-Jewish pogrom in 1946.

The director of the FBI stepped in it.

Or did he?

Here’s what happened. Last week, James B. Comey, the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, delivered a speech at the US Holocaust Memorial Museum.

He said: “In their minds, the murderers and accomplices of Germany, and Poland and Hungary, and so many, many other places didn’t do something evil. They convinced themselves it was the right thing to do, the thing they had to do. That’s what people do. And that should truly frighten us.”

The Polish government was not happy. The Polish president, Bronislaw Komorowski, castigated Mr. Comey for his “ignorance, lack of historical knowledge and possibly large personal aversion” toward Poles. And, as a gesture of good will, Mr. Comey has apologized.

Let’s be clear here. Mr. Comey was not accusing the nation of Poland of being complicit in the Holocaust. For all intents and purposes Poland as a nation temporarily ceased to exist during World War Two.

But, Poles? And Hungarians, Hungarians, Germans, Lithuanians, Ukrainians, Croats, Estonians. Dutch, Latvians….who can deny that so many of them were willing conspirators with the Nazis in the roundup of Jews and the wholesale destruction of European Jewish life?

Here is how President Komorowski could have responded.

“I know that Mr. Comey has offended many Poles — as well as Germans and Hungarians — with his recent remarks at the US Holocaust Museum. In large measure, he has defamed our history.

“Poland suffered terribly during World War Two. We were invaded by both the Soviet Union and Germany. The Nazis intended to turn our people into a permanent underclass of slaves. If you have read William Styron’s book Sophie’s Choice, or if you have seen the movie, then you know that the Nazis kidnapped Polish children and raised them as Aryans. Auschwitz was a killing field for the Poles, no less than for the Jews.

“By the end of the war, Poland lost 45 percent of her physicians and dentists, 57 percent of her attorneys, more than 16 percent of her teachers, 40 percent of her professors, 30 percent of her technicians, and more than 18 percent of her clergy.”

“Let me go further. In the early Middle Ages, Polish kings welcomed Jews who were fleeing the Crusades. The Jews called our land ‘Polin’ — in Hebrew, “here you shall sojourn.’ But it was more than a mere sojourn. The Jews created a Polish middle class, as well as a powerful religious culture.

“And, let us not forget: During the war, many Polish citizens saved Jews. According to Yad VaShem, 6,532 Poles were righteous gentiles. This is not only more than any other country; it accounts for no less than 26 percent of the total number of 24,811 people who Yad VaShem has recognized for their moral heroism.

“But, this moment also demands our honesty. Yes, in our best historical moments, we welcomed Jews, and we saved Jews. As Jews would say, that has been our ‘good inclination.’

“But, our ‘evil inclination’ has also been present. Let this be a Polish Yom Kippur. Anti-semitism is deeply imbedded in our history. Some of that hatred was based in religion; some of it in Polish nationalism; often, a combination of the two.

“And, if we are to remember Polish righteous gentiles — which we ask the Jews and the world to do — then we must remember those of our people who were far from righteous. In August, 1945, there were pogroms against Jewish survivors in Kraków. In July, 1946, there was the infamous pogrom in Kielce. Within two years of the end of the war, our citizens murdered at least fifteen hundred Jews.

“The blood of the Jewish people stained the soil of Poland, and that blood continues to scream at us. In 2012, the Anti-Defamation League carried out a survey of Polish attitudes towards the Jews. I am ashamed to report this: 54% of Poles believe that ‘Jews have too much power in the business world.’ Many Poles believe that there is a Jewish conspiracy to control international banking and the media. And many Poles still harbor traditional, Christian anti-semitic stereotypes about the Jews, including some of the vilest stereotypes imaginable.

“So, yes — I was personally troubled by what FBI Director Comey said about how Poles collaborated with the Nazis during the Holocaust. I was troubled because he was neither entirely right, nor was he entirely wrong.

“But, in another sense, we Poles should welcome Mr. Comey’s remarks, because they offer us the opportunity for sober reflection, and even repentance.

“To repent of our dark history means that we can transform that history, that we can write a new story. That is precisely what is happening now. Jewish life in Poland is growing again — much of it, under the auspices of the World Union for Progressive Judaism.  Consider the Museum of the History of Polish Jews in Warsaw. It is perhaps Poland’s greatest cultural achievement since the fall of Communism.

“Not far from the smokestacks of Auschwitz, there is now a Jewish Community Center in Krakow — a place of vibrant Jewish life, in the shadow of what had been Jewish death.

“Thank you, Mr. Comey. Your words made us uncomfortable. May our discomfort be the gateway to repentance and renewal.”


Upcoming appearances by Jeff:

I’m speaking for Hadassah as part of its online series on Zionism. The “Z” Word: Why Zionism Makes Some People Uncomfortable. Tuesday, May 5, 7:30 – 8:30 pm ET.

This weekend, I am speaking about the Armenian Genocide, among other topics, at Temple Emanuel, Westfield, NJ.

In south Florida? Next weekend, I am speaking about caffeinated Judaism — the relationship between Jews, Judaism, and coffee — at Temple Shaarei Shalom in Boynton Beach.